Isolation, Characterization, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Two New Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Strains from the Northern Region of Xinjiang Province, China
- 62 Downloads
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) caused by the CCHF virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne natural focal disease with a mortality rate of approximately 50%. CCHFV is widely prevalent in Africa, southern Asia, the Middle East, and southeast Europe. CCHF outbreaks have been reported previously in Xinjiang province, China, especially in its southern region. Epidemiological surveys conducted on ticks and animals have revealed the presence of CCHFV strains in ticks, rodents, and infected individuals from cities and counties in southern Xinjiang. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Chinese CCHFV strains belong to one genotype, based on complete sequences of the S segments of its negative-stranded RNA genome. The present study reports two new CCHFV strains isolated from Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum ticks collected from Fukang City and Wujiaqu City in the northern region of Xinjiang. Viral characteristics and their evolutionary relationships were analyzed through metagenomic and reverse-transcription PCR analyses; these analyses indicated that the genotype of both strains was different from that of other Chinese strains. Furthermore, previous reports of CCHFV in Xinjiang were reviewed and phylogenetic analyses were performed. CCHFV was found to prevail in Fukang City in Junggar Basin for more than 20 years, and that Fukang City and Wujiaqu City are considered natural reservoirs of different genotypes of CCHFV strains. Our findings facilitate the understanding of CCHFV distribution in Xinjiang province and provide insights into the evolutionary relationships among Chinese CCHFV strains.
KeywordsCrimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Mice inoculation Isolate Genotypes Phylogenetic analysis Fukang city Wujiaqu city
This work was supported by the Science and Technology Basic Work Program (2013FY113500) and the National Key Research and Development Program (2016YFE0113500) from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China, as well as the European Union’s Horizon 2020 EVAg project (No 653316).
YZ, JL, CW and AA collected and processed the ticks for the inoculation of suckling mice; YZ and JL performed the first mice inoculation and harvested the tissue samples; YZ and JL passaged the two virus strains on newborn mice; YZ, ZZ and QW performed the virus infection and analyzed the virus production on Vero cells; YZ, ZS, YF and SS analysis all the work; ZH, YZ and FD conceived of the study; YZ and SS wrote the manuscript; YZ and FD checked and finalized the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Animal and Human Rights Statement
Animal experiments in this study were approved by the ethics committees of Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Approval Number: WIVH01201501).
- Bukbuk DN, Fukushi S, Tani H, Yoshikawa T, Taniguchi S, Iha K, Fukuma A, Shimojima M, Morikawa S, Saijo M, Kasolo F, Baba SS (2014) Development and validation of serological assays for viral hemorrhagic fevers and determination of the prevalence of Rift Valley fever in Borno State, Nigeria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 108:768–773CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bukbuk DN, Dowall SD, Lewandowski K, Bosworth A, Baba SS, Varghese A, Watson RJ, Bell A, Atkinson B, Hewson R (2016) Serological and virological evidence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus circulation in the human population of Borno State, Northeastern Nigeria. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10:e0005126CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Chai JJ (2004a) Preliminary report on survey of the distribution of hemorrhagic fever on the upper and middle reaches of the Tarim River. Endemic Dis Bull 19(suppl.):34–36 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Chai JJ, Han YY, Feng CH, Zhang YH, Nuer Y, Liu YH, Zhang YW, Qiao YS, Li HG (2004b) Report of investigation on hemorrhagic fever in Bachu County, Xinjiang in 1966. I. Clinical observation on 5 cases with hemorrhagic fever. Endemic Dis Bull 19(Suppl.):1–5 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Chai JJ, Nuer Y, Feng CH, Li HG, Liu J (2004c) Hemorrhagic fever in Bachu: Two cases report. Endemic Dis Bull 19(Suppl.):23–25 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Feng CH, Bai XH, Liu HB, Li F, Gu Y (1991) Discovery of natural foci of Xinjiang hemorrhagic fever in the southern margin area of Junggar Basin, Xinjiang. Endemic Dis Bull 6:52–55 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
- Liu YH, Chai JJ, Xiao CE, Li WH (2004) Epidemiological analysis of 140 cases with Xinjiang hemorrhagic fever. Endemic Dis Bull 19(Suppl.):47–49 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
- Messina JP, Pigott DM, Golding N, Duda KA, Brownstein JS, Weiss DJ, Gibson H, Robinson TP, Gilbert M, William Wint GR, Nuttall PA, Gething PW, Myers MF, George DB, Hay SI (2015) The global distribution of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 109:503–513CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Mohd Shukri M, Ling Kho K, Ghane Kisomi M, Lani R, Marlina S, Muhd Radzi SF, Tee Tay S, Ping Wong L, Awang Mahmud AB, Hassan Nizam QN, Abu Bakar S, Zandi K (2015) Seroprevalence report on tick-borne encephalitis virus and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus among Malaysian’s farm workers. BMC Public Health 15:704CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Palomar AM, Portillo A, Santibanez S, Garcia-Alvarez L, Munoz-Sanz A, Marquez FJ, Romero L, Eiros JM, Oteo JA (2017) Molecular (ticks) and serological (humans) study of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in the Iberian Peninsula, 2013–2015. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 35:344–347CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tang Q, Prehaud C, Bouloy M, Conghui Z (1999) Sequencing and analysis of S gene segment of XHFV. Chin J Microbiol Immunol 19:461–465 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Zhou Z, Meng W, Deng F, Xia H, Li T, Sun S, Wang M, Wang H, Zhang Y, Hu Z (2013b) Complete genome sequences of two Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses isolated in China. Genome Announc 1. pii:e00571-13Google Scholar