A Highly Pathogenic Strain of Porcine Deltacoronavirus Caused Watery Diarrhea in Newborn Piglets
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Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly identified virus that causes watery diarrhea in newborn piglets and results in significant economic losses to the pig industry. Since first reported in Hong Kong in 2012, PDCoV has been subsequently detected in USA, South Korea, Thailand, and mainland China. Here we isolated a strain of PDCoV, named CHN-GD-2016, from the intestinal content of a diseased newborn piglet with severe diarrhea in a pig farm in Guangdong, China. PDCoV CHN-GD-2016 could be identified by immunofluorescence with PDCoV specific rabbit antisera, and typical crown-shaped particles with spiky surface projections of this PDCoV were observed with electron microscopy. Genomic analysis showed that the PDCoV CHN-GD-2016 was closely related to other Chinese PDCoV strains, with the highest sequence similarity with the strain CHN/Tianjin/2016. Importantly, inoculation of newborn piglets with 1 × 105 TCID50 of CHN-GD-2016 by oral feeding successfully reproduced clear clinical symptoms, including vomiting, dehydration, and severe diarrhea in piglets. In addition, the virus RNA in rectal swabs from 1 to 7 days post inoculation was detected, macroscopic and microscopic lesions in small intestine were observed, and viral antigen was also detected in the small intestines with immunohistochemical staining. Collectively, the data show in this study confirms that PDCoV is present in Guangdong, China and is highly pathogenic in newborn piglets.
KeywordsPorcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) Genomic analysis Pathogenicity Southern China
This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program (2016YFD0500101).
YCC and ZCX conceived and designed the experiments; ZCX and HLZ performed the experiments; ZCX and HLZ analyzed the data; YCC, QFZ, YPD, LC, YZ and CYX contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools; ZCX wrote the paper. YCC checked and finalized the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Animal and Human Rights Statement
The animal study was supervised by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Sun Yat-sen University (IACUC DD-17-0403) and used in accordance with regulation and guidelines of this committee.
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