Prevalence of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus among intravenous drug users: a systematic review and meta-analysis
- 110 Downloads
Intravenous drug users (IDUs) have been demonstrated to be highly vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Nevertheless, the prevalence of Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV), an important co-infected agent with HIV, among this population remained obscure. We conducted a systematic review on the epidemiological features of KSHV among IDUs worldwide. Eligible studies were retrieved from 6 electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI and Wanfang). We calculated the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (CI) overall and among subgroups using either random-effects model or fixed-effects model depending on between-study heterogeneity. The potential publication bias was assessed by the Egger’s test. A meta-regression analysis was performed to explore the sources of heterogeneity. Finally, twenty-two studies with a total sample of 7881 IDUs were included in the analysis. The pooled prevalence of KSHV was 14.71% (95% CI 11.12%–19.46%) among IDUs. Specifically, KSHV prevalence was 10.86% (95% CI 6.95%–16.96%) in HIV-negative IDUs, and 13.56% (95% CI 10.57%–17.38%) in HIV-positive IDUs. Moreover, prevalence among IDUs from the three continents involved in the current study was similar: 16.10% (95%CI 7.73%–33.54%) in Asia; 14.22% (95%CI 8.96%–22.57%) in Europe and 14.06% (95%CI 11.38%–17.37%) in America. Globally, IDUs are at higher risk of the KSHV infection when compared with the general population, regardless of geographical region or HIV-infection status.
KeywordsKaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) prevalence intravenous drug users (IDUs)
This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (17ZR1401400), the Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 81772170, U603117) and the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 20120071120050).
QWF, ZQL and TJZ designed the experiments. QWF, ZQL and YZ searched literature, collected and summed up the data. QWF, YZ and ZJZ analyzed the data. QWF, ZQL wrote the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with Ethics Guidelines
The author declares no conflict of interest. This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the author.
- Ahmadi Ghezeldasht S, Hassannia T, Rafatpanah H, Hekmat R, Valizadeh N, Ghayour Mobarhan M, Rezaee SA. 2015. Oncogenic Virus Infections in the General Population and End-stage Renal Disease Patients With Special Emphasis on Kaposi’s Sarcoma Associated Herpes Virus (KSHV) in Northeast of Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol, 8: e14920.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Butler LM, Dorsey G, Hladik W, Rosenthal PJ, Brander C, Neilands TB, Mbisa G, Whitby D, Kiepiela P, Mosam A, Mzolo S, Dollard SC, Martin JN. 2009. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) seroprevalence in population-based samples of African children: evidence for at least 2 patterns of KSHV transmission. J Infect Dis, 200: 430–438.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Khajedaluee M, Babaei A, Vakili R, Valizade N, Homaei Shandiz F, Alavian SM, Seyed Nozadi M, Jazayeri SM, Hassannia T. 2016. Sero-Prevalence of Bloodborne Tumor Viruses (HCV, HBV, HTLV-I and KSHV Infections) and Related Risk Factors among Prisoners in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran, in 2008. Hepat Mon, 16: e31541.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Luo ML, Tan HZ, Zhou Q, Wang SY, Cai C, Guo YW, Shen L. 2013. Realizing the Meta-Analysis of Single Rate in R Software. EBM, 13: 181–184, 188. (In Chinse)Google Scholar
- Perna AM, Bonura F, Vitale F, Viviano E, Di Benedetto MA, Ajello F, Villafrate MR, Prestileo T, Mancuso S, Goedert JJ, Romano N. 2000. Antibodies to human herpes virus type 8 (HHV8) in general population and in individuals at risk for sexually transmitted diseases in Western Sicily. Int J Epidemiol, 29: 175–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rezza G, Andreoni M, Dorrucci M, Pezzotti P, Monini P, Zerboni R, Salassa B, Colangeli V, Sarmati L, Nicastri E, Barbanera M, Pristera R, Aiuti F, Ortona L, Ensoli B. 1999. Human herpesvirus 8 seropositivity and risk of Kaposi’s sarcoma and other acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related diseases. J Natl Cancer Inst, 91: 1468–1474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rezza G, Lennette ET, Giuliani M, Pezzotti P, Caprilli F, Monini P, Butto S, Lodi G, Di Carlo A, Levy JA, Ensoli B. 1998. Prevalence and determinants of anti-lytic and anti-latent antibodies to human herpesvirus-8 among Italian individuals at risk of sexually and parenterally transmitted infections. Int J Cancer, 77: 361–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Simpson GR, Schulz TF, Whitby D, Cook PM, Boshoff C, Rainbow L, Howard MR, Gao SJ, Bohenzky RA, Simmonds P, Lee C, De Ruiter A, Hatzakis A, Tedder RS, Weller IVD, Weiss RA, Moore PS. 1996. Prevalence of Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus infection measured by antibodies to recombinant capsid protein and latent immunofluorescence antigen. Lancet, 349: 1133–1138.Google Scholar
- Stiller CA, Trama A, Brewster DH, Verne J, Bouchardy C, Navarro C, Chirlaque MD, Marcos-Gragera R, Visser O, Serraino D, Weiderpass E, Dei Tos AP, Ascoli V. 2014. Descriptive epidemiology of Kaposi sarcoma in Europe. Report from the RARECARE project. Cancer Epidemiol, 38: 670–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tornesello ML, Biryahwaho B, Downing R, Hatzakis A, Alessi E, Cusini M, Ruocco V, Katongole-Mbidde E, Loquercio G, Buonaguro L, Buonaguro FM. 2010. Human herpesvirus type 8 variants circulating in Europe, Africa and North America in classic, endemic and epidemic Kaposi’s sarcoma lesions during pre-AIDS and AIDS era. Virology, 398: 280–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang Y, Zhu B, Zhao X, Zhang X. 2000. Seroprevalence of Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus infection among drug users. National Medical Journal of China, 80: 597–598. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Yang PR, Tan XH, Guo SX, Yang L. 2010. Research of Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in drug users in one city of Xinjiang. Modern Preventive Medicine, 37: 107–109. (In Chinese)Google Scholar