Annals of Telecommunications

, Volume 73, Issue 7–8, pp 499–509 | Cite as

An IEEE 802.11ah-based scalable network architecture for Internet of Things

  • Nurzaman AhmedEmail author
  • Hafizur Rahman
  • Md. Iftekhar Hussain


IEEE 802.11ah is proven to be a suitable communication standard for Internet of Things. It supports a wide range of modulation and coding schemes (MCSs) along with different data rates. The Restricted Access Windows (RAW)-based channel access mechanism facilitates scalable communication among a large number of devices. However, due to the absence of RAW size adjustment, it fails to optimally utilize the resources in a dynamic network environment. In this paper, we propose a method to estimate the RAW size based on traffic loads and provide relay node support for stations to use different MCSs. The relay nodes dynamically allocate bandwidth to stations belonging to different relay groups. The proposed scheme is seamlessly assimilated into 802.11ah which shows significant performance improvement in terms of throughput and delay.


Internet of Things (IoT) IEEE 802.11ah Restricted Access Window (RAW) Heterogeneity 


Funding information

This work is supported by the project titled “QoS Provisioning in Internet of Things (IoT)” (Ref No. 13 (7) /2015-CC&BT dated:28/09/2015) funded by Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology (MeitY) (CC & BT), Govt. of India.


  1. 1.
    Ahmed N, Hussain MI (2016) A distributed channel access mechanism for IEEE 802.11 ah. In: IEEE world forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT). IEEE, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahmed N, Hussain MI (2016) Relay-based IEEE 802.11ah network: a Smart City solution. In: Cloudification of the Internet of Things (CIoT). IEEE, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ahmed N, Rahman H, Hussain MI (2016) A comparison of 802.11ah and 802.15.4 for IoT. ICT Express 2(3):100–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anouar H, Bonnet C (2007) Optimal constant-window backoff scheme for IEEE 802.11 DCF in single-hop wireless networks under finite load conditions. Wirel Pers Commun 43(4):1583–1602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bianchi G (2000) IEEE 802.11 Distributed coordination function. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 18(3):535–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chapman L, Muller CL, Young DT, Warren EL, Grimmond C, Cai XM, Ferranti EJ (2015) The Birmingham urban climate laboratory: an open meteorological test bed and challenges of the Smart City. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 96(9):1545–1560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hazmi A, Rinne J, Valkama M (2012) Feasibility study of IEEE 802.11 ah radio technology for IoT and M2M use cases. In: Globecom Workshops. IEEE, pp 1687–1692Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hazmi A, Badihi B, Larmo A, Torsner J, Valkama M et al (2015) Performance analysis of IoT-enabling IEEE 802.11 ah technology and its RAW mechanism with non-cross slot boundary holding schemes. In: International symposium on a world of wireless, mobile and multimedia networks (WoWMoM). IEEE , pp 1–6Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hernández-Muñoz JM, Vercher JB, Muñoz L, Galache JA, Presser M, Gómez LAH, Pettersson J (2011) Smart cities at the forefront of the future internet. In: The future internet assembly. Springer, pp 447–462Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    IEEE Approved Draft Standard for Information Technology-Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems-Local and Metropolitan Area Networks-Specific Requirements-Part 11 (2016) Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications: Amendment 2: Sub 1 GHz License Exempt Operation. IEEE P802.11ah/D10.0, pp 1–660Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Khorov E, Lyakhov A, Krotov A, Guschin A (2015) A survey on IEEE 802.11 ah: an enabling networking technology for smart cities. Comput Commun 58:53–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kumar S, Lim H, Kim H (2015) Hierarchical MAC protocol with multi-channel allocation for enhancing IEEE 802.11 ah relay networks. In: Wireless communications and mobile computing conference (IWCMC). IEEE, pp 1458–1463Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lee IG, Kim M (2016) Interference-aware self-optimizing Wi-Fi for high efficiency Internet of Things in dense networks. Comput Commun 89:60–74Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lei X, Rhee SH (2017) Performance improvement of sub-1 GHz WLANs for future IoT environments. Wirel Pers Commun 93(4):933–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
    Madueño GC, Stefanović Č, Popovski P (2016) Reliable and efficient access for alarm-initiated and regular M2M traffic in IEEE 802.11 ah Systems. IEEE Internet Things J 3(5):673–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Morandi C, Rolando A, Vita SD (2016) From smart city to smart region. Springer International PublishingGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Park CW, Hwang D, Lee TJ (2014) Enhancement of IEEE 802.11ah MAC for M2M communications. IEEE Commun Lett 18(7):1151–1154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rajandekar A, Sikdar B (2015) A survey of MAC layer issues and protocols for machine-to-machine communications. IEEE Internet Things J 2(2):175–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sanchez L, Muñoz L, Galache JA, Sotres P, Santana JR, Gutierrez V, Ramdhany R, Gluhak A, Krco S, Theodoridis E, Pfisterer D (2014) SmartSantander: IoT experimentation over a Smart City testbed. Comput Netw 61:217–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    SIGFOX - The Global Communications Service Provider.
  22. 22.
    Tian L, Famaey J, Latré S (2016) Evaluation of the IEEE 802.11ah Restricted Access Window mechanism for dense IoT networks. In: 17th international symposium on a world of wireless, mobile and multimedia networks (WoWMoM). IEEE, pp 1–9Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tian L, Khorov E, Latré S, Famaey J (2017) Real-time station grouping under dynamic traffic for IEEE 802.11ah. Sensors 17(7):1559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang Y, Li Y, Chai KK, Chen Y, Schormans J (2015) Energy-aware adaptive Restricted Access Window for IEEE 802.11 ah based Smart Grid networks. In: International conference on smart grid communications (SmartGridComm). IEEE , pp 581–586Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Want R, Schilit BN, Jenson S (2015) Enabling the Internet of Things. Computer (1):28–35Google Scholar
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
    Zanella A, Bui N, Castellani A, Vangelista L, Zorzi M (2014) Internet of Things for smart cities. IEEE Internet Things J 1(1):22–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institut Mines-Télécom and Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nurzaman Ahmed
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hafizur Rahman
    • 1
  • Md. Iftekhar Hussain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Information TechnologyNorth-Eastern Hill UniversityShillongIndia

Personalised recommendations