Annals of Telecommunications

, Volume 72, Issue 1–2, pp 105–115 | Cite as

Service placement for latency reduction in the internet of things

  • Karima Velasquez
  • David Perez Abreu
  • Marilia Curado
  • Edmundo Monteiro


New services and applications become part of our daily activities as we evolve into new solutions supported by cutting-edge paradigms, like the Internet of Things and Smart Cities. In order to properly achieve the benefits theoretically provided by these models, new kinds of services must be designed. These new services have special requirements, as well as the users that access to them. One of these requirements is low latency levels, since a delayed reply could render to chaos for applications such as eHealth and public safety. The communication infrastructure must cope with these challenges by offering innovative solutions. One of these solutions is a smart service placement system that facilitates the location of services in the proper position according to specific needs. On this paper, a service placement architecture for the Internet of Things is proposed, with especial emphasis in its main module, the Service Orchestrator, for which implementation details are provided, including a model for the service placement task. Furthermore, technologies to implement the modules from the architecture are suggested. This proposal, as well as its validation, is framed within the scope of the SusCity project.


Latency Fog IoT Service placement 



This work is financed by national funds via FCT - Foundation for Science and Technology within the scope of project “MITP TB / CS / 0026/2013 - SusCity”.


  1. 1.
    Smart Cities. Digital Agenda for Europe - A Europe 2020 Initiative, 2016, Last visited: 10-05-2016. [Online]. Available:
  2. 2.
    European Smart Cities, 2016, Last visited: 10-05-2016. [Online]. Available:
  3. 3.
    FCT - SusCity Project, 2016, Last visited: 10-05-2016. [Online]. Available:
  4. 4.
    Vaquero LM, Rodero-Merino L (2014) Finding your way in the fog: towards a comprehensive definition of fog computing. SIGCOMM Comput Commun Rev 44(5):27–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Technology Radar, Cisco, December 2014, Whitepaper sponsored by CiscoGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Piao JT, Yan J (2010) A network-aware virtual machine placement and migration approach in cloud computing. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Grid and Cloud Computing, GCC 2010, pp 87–92Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Camati R, Calsavara A, Lima Jr L (2014) Solving the virtual machine placement problem as a multiple multidimensional knapsack problem. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Networks, ICN 2014, pp 253–260Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ren Y, Suzuki J, Vasilakos A, Omura S, Oba K (2014) Cielo: An evolutionary game theoretic framework for virtual machine placement in clouds. In: Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud, ser. FICLOUD’14, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Amokrane A, Zhani MF, Langar R, Boutaba R, Pujolle G (2013) Greenhead: virtual data center embedding across distributed infrastructures. IEEE Trans Cloud Comput 1(1):36–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pu Q, Ananthanarayanan G, Bodik P, Kandula S, Akella A, Bahl P, Stoica I (2015) Low latency geo-distributed data analytics. SIGCOMM Comput Commun Rev 45(4):421–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhang Q, Zhu Q, Zhani M, Boutaba R, Hellerstein J (2013) Dynamic service placement in geographically distributed clouds. IEEE J Select Areas Commun 31(12):762–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Huang Z, Lin K-J, Yu S-Y, Hsu J. Y-J (2014) Co-locating services in IoT systems to minimize the communication energy cost. J Innov Digit Ecosyst 1(1–2):47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ooi BY, Chan HY, Cheah Y.N (2010) Dynamic service placement and redundancy to ensure service availability during resource failures, vol 2, pp 715–720Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ghaznavi M, Khan A, Shahriar N, Alsubhi K, Ahmed R, Boutaba R (2015) Elastic virtual network function placement. In: IEEE 4th International Conference on Cloud Networking (CloudNet), pp 255–260Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Steiner M, Gaglianello BG, Gurbani V, Hilt V, Roome W, Scharf M, Voith T (2012) Network-aware service placement in a distributed cloud environment. SIGCOMM Comput Commun Rev 42(4):73–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hao W, Thuraisingham B, Yen I (2009) Dynamic service and data migration in the clouds. In: Proceedings of the International Computer Software and Applications Conference, pp 134–139Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Spinnewyn B, Braem B, Latré S (2015) Fault-tolerant application placement in heterogeneous cloud environments. In: 11th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM), pp 192–200Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jia M, Cao J, Liang W (2015) Optimal cloudlet placement and user to cloudlet allocation in wireless metropolitan area networks. IEEE Trans Cloud Comput 99:1–1Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bienkowski M, Feldmann A, Jurca D, Kellerer W, Schaffrath G, Schmid S, Widmer J (2010) Competitive analysis for service migration in vnets. In: Proceedings of the second ACM SIGCOMM workshop on Virtualized infrastructure systems and architectures, pp 17–24Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Alimi R, Penno R, Yang Y, Kiesel S, Previdi S, Roome W, Shalunov S, Woundy R (2014) Appl-Layer Traffic Optim (ALTO) Protocol 9:RFC7285Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Seedorf J, Burger E (2009) Appl-Layer Traffic Optim (ALTO) Probl Statement 10:RFC5693Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Faigl Z, Szabó Z, Schulcz R (2014) Application-layer traffic optimization in software-defined mobile networks: a proof-of-concept implementation. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Telecommunications Network Strategy and Planning Symposium (Networks), pp 1–6Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhou YT, Deng ML, Ji FZ, He XG, Tang QJ (2015) Discovery algorithm for network topology based on SNMP. In: International Conference on Automation, Mechanical Control and Computational Engineering. Atlantis PressGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang W, De S, Toenjes R, Reetz E, Moessner K (2012) A comprehensive ontology for knowledge representation in the internet of things. In: IEEE 11th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gao Y, Guan H, Qi Z, Hou Y, Liu L (2013) A Multi-objective ant colony system algorithm for virtual machine placement in cloud computing. J Comput Syst Sci 79(8):1230–1242MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Biran O, Corradi A, Fanelli M, Foschini L, Nus A, Raz D, Silvera E (2012) A stable network-aware VM placement for cloud systems. In: Proceedings of the 2012 12th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing. IEEE Computer SocietyGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Boloori Arabani A, Farahani RZ (2012) Facility location dynamics: an overview of classifications and applications. Comput Indust Eng 62(1):408–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Moens H, Hanssens B, Dhoedt B, Turck FD (2014) Hierarchical network-aware placement of service oriented applications in clouds. In: 2014 IEEE Network Operations and Management Symposium (NOMS), pp 1–8Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lukovszki T, Rost M, Schmid S (2016) It’s a match!: near-optimal and incremental middlebox deployment. SIGCOMM Comput Commun Rev 46(1):30–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sung J, Kim M, Lim K, Rhee J-K (2013) Efficient cache placement strategy for wireless content delivery networks. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on ICT Convergence, pp 238–239Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stephen TLM, Bradley P, Hax Arnoldo C Integer programming. In: Applied Mathematical Programming. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1977, ch. 9, pp. 272–319Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bonomi F, Milito R, Zhu J, Addepalli S (2012) Fog computing and its role in the internet of things. In: Proceedings of the First Edition of the MCC Workshop on Mobile Cloud Computing, ser. MCC ’12. ACM, pp 13–16Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Krishnamurthy B, Wills C, Zhang Y (2001) On the use and performance of content distribution networks. In: Proceedings of the First ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Internet Measurement Workshop - IMW ’01, p 169Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sköldström P, Sonkoly B, Gulyás A, Németh F, Kind M, Westphal F-J, John W, Garay J, Jacob E, Jocha D, Elek J, Szabó R, Tavernier W, Agapiou G, Manzalini A, Rost M, Sarrar N, Schmid S (2014) Towards unified programmability of cloud and carrier infrastructure. In: Proceedings of the 2014 Third European Workshop on Software Defined Networks, ser. EWSDN’14. IEEE Computer Society, pp 55–60Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Institut Mines-Télécom and Springer-Verlag France 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karima Velasquez
    • 1
  • David Perez Abreu
    • 1
  • Marilia Curado
    • 1
  • Edmundo Monteiro
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Informatics EngineeringUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

Personalised recommendations