Evaluation of the SAR induced in a multilayer biological structure and comparison with SAR in homogeneous tissues

  • Aline Pradier
  • Abdelhamid Hadjem
  • David Lautru
  • Azeddine Gati
  • Man-Faï Wong
  • Victor Fouad Hanna
  • Joe Wiart
Original Paper

Abstract

Wireless systems usage has evolved, for instance, with the recent increase in the use of a hands-free kit, the mobile phone is used more and more in a body-worn position. Therefore, to check the compliance to the international limits, new methods have to be developed. In this study, we analyze the relevance of using the equivalent head liquid for the biological structure of organs that are different from that of the head. This paper compares the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) values assessed using simulations in a flat phantom filled with the liquid used to test the compliance of mobile phone close to the head to those values obtained using a multilayer model representing the tissues of the trunk. The multilayer structures are derived from the anatomical analysis of the visible human model and corresponding to reasonable positions of a handset in a body-worn configuration. The employed sources are half-wavelength dipoles placed at different distances from those structures and operating at frequencies between 300 MHz and 6 GHz.

Keywords

Body worn Compliance testing Dosimetry Electromagnetic exposure Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) 

References

  1. 1.
    ICNIRP guidelines (1998) Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic field (up to 300 GHz). Health Phys 74Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    IEEE (2005) Standard for the safety levels with respect to human exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, 3KHz–300 GHz. IEEE Standard C95.1Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    IEC PT 62209. Procedure to measure the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the frequency range of 300 MHz–3 GHz, Part 1: hand-held mobile wireless communication devicesGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) (2001) Basic standard for the measurement of the Specific Absorption Rate related to human exposure to electromagnetic fields from mobile phones 300 MHz–3 GHz. CENELEC, Brussels; (Report nr EN50361:2001 E)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Grangeat C, Person C, Picard D, Wiart J, Measurement of the Specific Absorption Rate 5SAR) on mobile phone—Comobio Project contribution to international standards, In Annals of telecommunications, Vol. 58, no 5–6, May–June 2003, Health and the information technologies, p. 740–p. 765Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Drossos A, Santomaa V, Kuster N (2000) The dependence of the electromagnetic energy absorption upon human head tissue composition in the frequency range of 300–3000 MHz. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor Tech 48(11): 1988–1995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Beard B et al (2006) Comparisons of computed mobile phone induced SAR in the SAM phantom to that in anatomically correct models of the human head. IEEE Trans Electromagn Compat. 48(2):397–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Visible Human. The VH Project. On line available: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible_human.html
  9. 9.
    Pradier A, Lautru D, Wong MF, Fouad Hanna V, Wiart J (2005) Rigorous evaluation of the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) induced in a Multilayer Biological Structure, presented at EuMW/EuMC, Paris, France, pp 1655–1658Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    EM Software & Systems-Technopark, Stellenbosch 7600, PO Box 1354, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa. On line: http://www.feko.info/
  11. 11.
    Chew WC (1995) Waves and fields in inhomogeneous media. IEEE, D.G. Dudley, Serie Editor, pp 375–428Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mosig JR (1984) Les structures microruban: Analyse au moyen des équations intégrales, PhD Thesis, Ecole Polytechnique fédérale de LausanneGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wait JR (1996) Electromagnetic waves in stratified media. IEEE, D.G. Dudley, series EditorGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gabriel C (1996) Compilation of the dielectric properties of the body tissues at the RF and microwave frequencies. Books Air Force Technical Report AL/OE-TR-1996-0037 [on line] Available: http://www.fcc.gov/cgi-bin.dielec.sh

Copyright information

© GET and Springer Verlag France 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aline Pradier
    • 1
  • Abdelhamid Hadjem
    • 1
  • David Lautru
    • 2
  • Azeddine Gati
    • 1
  • Man-Faï Wong
    • 1
  • Victor Fouad Hanna
    • 2
  • Joe Wiart
    • 1
  1. 1.France Télécom, Division R&, RESA/FACEParisFrance
  2. 2.Université Pierre et Marie CurieParis cedex 05France

Personalised recommendations