International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 20, Issue 6, pp 1123–1129 | Cite as

Comparison of two Multiphase Procedures on a Commercial Vehicle in Rain Conditions

  • Giovanni LombardiEmail author
  • Antonio Ercoli
  • Marco Maganzi
  • Giacomo de Angeli


In automotive design, the study of the water thin layer over a car due to rain is becoming increasingly important: the challenge is to obtain a way to describe the behavior of the water over a vehicle in rainy conditions and its interactions with wipers and drainage systems, to determine potential failures of the vehicle design. In this paper two similar numeric procedures have been realized with the software STAR CCM+® to analyze the dynamic of water thin layer starting from the impingement of the rain on the car surface and taking into account even the motion of the wipers over the windshield. Moreover, the water that flows through the drainage systems is monitored to figure out if the water could produce a malfunction of components near them. In order to describe each status of the water, many multiphase models are used. These methodologies have been applied on a commercial vehicle model and the results have been examined and compared to each other. The analysis shows a better description of the reality for one of them, leading to the possibility of using it as a design tool in the automotive industry.


Multiphase CFD Rain conditions Overset Morphing Automotive 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allocco, M. (2018). Multiphase Simulations for Vehicle External Water Management. M. S. Thesis. Turin Polytechnic. Turin, Italy.Google Scholar
  2. Aoki, M., Iwai, H., Nakagawa, K., Ishii, S. and Mizutani, K. (2016). Measurements of rainfall velocity and raindrop size distribution using coherent doppler lidar. J. Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 33, 9, 1949–1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Buscariolo, F. F. and Delia Volpe, L. J. (2014). Water ingestion and pressure analysis of automotive vehicles using CFD. Blucher Engineering Proc. 1, 2, 142–149.Google Scholar
  4. Buscariolo, F. F., Budavari, A., Mantovani, D., Almeida, E., Rossi, G., Bigarella, R. and Ramos, R. P. (2014). Multiphase water flow simulation of a vehicle's roof. Blucher Engineering Proc. 1, 2, 158–165.Google Scholar
  5. Chandar, D. D. J., Boppana, V. B. L. and Kumar, V. (2018). A comparative study of different overset grid solvers between OpenFOAM, StarCCM and ansys-fluent. AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Kissimmee, Florida, USA.Google Scholar
  6. Dasarathan, D., Jilesen, J., Croteau, D. and Ayala, R. (2016). CFD water management design for a passenger coach with correlation. SAE Paper No. 2016-01-8155.Google Scholar
  7. Foucart, H. and Blain, E. (2005). Water-flow simulation on vehicle panels by taking into account the calculated aerodynamic field. SAE Paper No. 2005-01-3572.Google Scholar
  8. Hucho, W. H. (1998). Aerodynamics of Road Vehicles: From Fluid Mechanics of Vehicle Engineering. 4th edn. SAE International. Warrendale, Pennsylvania, USA.Google Scholar
  9. Jilesen, J., Alajbegovic, A. and Duncan, B. (2015). Soiling and rain simulation for ground transportation vehicles. 7th European-Japanese Two-Phase Flow Group Meeting, Zermatt, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  10. Kenneth, J. K. and Longman, S. E. (1998). Automobile exterior water flow analysis using CFD and wind tunnel visualization. SAE Paper No. 980035.Google Scholar
  11. Lombardi, G., Maganzi, M., Caldirola, L., Cannizzo, F. and Petrotta, G. (2006). The aerodynamic development of the Ferrari FXX. Proc. 6th MIRA Int. Vehicles Aerodynamic Conf., Warwick, UK.Google Scholar
  12. Lombardi, G., Maganzi, M., Cannizzo, F. and Cardile, E. (2008). Optimization procedures in a car aerodynamic design: Examples of application with CFD. Proc. 7th MIRA Int. Vehicles Aerodynamic Conf., Warwick, UK.Google Scholar
  13. Lombardi, G., Maganzi, M., Cannizzo, F. and Cardile, E. (2010). L'uso della CFD per l'ottimizzazione aerodinamica di un veicolo: Problemi e applicazioni. AUTOTECNICA, 7.Google Scholar
  14. Profir, M. M. (2012). Automated Moving Mesh Techniques in CFD. Application to Fluid-structure Interactions and Rigid Motions Problems. CRS4 Collana di Seminari Interni, Number 20120411.Google Scholar
  15. Schubert, S. and Rung, T. (2017). Challenges and applications of overset grid coupling strategies. Proc. 88th Annual Meeting of the Int. Association of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics (GAMM), Weimar, Germany.Google Scholar
  16. Siemens (2017). User Guide STAR-CCM Version 12.02.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© KSAE/ 111-05 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni Lombardi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Antonio Ercoli
    • 1
  • Marco Maganzi
    • 2
  • Giacomo de Angeli
    • 3
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e IndustrialeUniversità di PisaPisaItaly
  2. 2.CUBIT s.c.a.r.l.PisaItaly
  3. 3.Maserati S.p.A.ModenaItaly

Personalised recommendations