International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp 949–960 | Cite as

Improvement of Electromagnetic Force and Dynamic Response of a Solenoid Injector Based on the Effects of Key Parameters

  • Nguyen Ba Hung
  • Ocktaeck LimEmail author


The solenoid is one of the key components of a fuel injection system. It plays an important role in controlling the valve opening time of an injector, as well as in deciding engine combustion performance. The purpose of this study is to research and develop a high-performance solenoid that can be used for natural gas injector. Operation of the solenoid is described based on mathematical models. The solenoid is modeled and simulated using Maxwell and Simplorer software, in which its simulation parameters are based on the specifications of a real solenoid injector. In addition, effects of key parameters, such as thickness of cut-off of sleeve, cross-sectional shape of the coil and the relative position between the coil and plunger on the operating characteristics of the solenoid injector are investigated. The various thickness of cut-off of sleeve, coil’s cross-sectional shape and relative position with respect to the plunger are found to have a significant influence on the electromagnetic force of the solenoid injector. In other words, a large electromagnetic force along with an optimized response time can be easily obtained by changing the coil’s cross-sectional shape and relative position to the plunger.

Key words

Solenoid Valve Injector Electromagnetic force Response time 



damping coefficient, Ns/m


electromagnetic force, N


spring force, N


damping force, N


gas force, N


gravitational force, N


acceleration due to gravity, m/s2


current, A


spring stiffness, N/m


inductance, H


plunger mass, kg


coil turns


coil resistance, Ω


time, s


input voltage, V


plunger displacement, m


total flux, Wb/m2













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This research was supported by the Industrial Strategic Technology Development Program (10053151, Development of the 800kPa Fuel System of a High Pressure Precision Control for NGV) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MI, Korea).


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Copyright information

© KSAE 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of UlsanUlsanKorea

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