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International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 207–213 | Cite as

Simulation of Liquid and Gas Phase Characteristics of Aerated-Liquid Jets in Quiescent and Cross Flow Conditions

  • Kyoung-Su Im
  • Zeng-Chan Zhang
  • Grant CookJr.
  • Ming-Chia Lai
  • Mun Soo ChonEmail author
Article
  • 1 Downloads

Abstract

The simulation of the liquid- and gas-phase properties of aerated-liquid jets in various quiescent and cross flow conditions are presented in the study. For simplicity, water is used as the liquid for all test conditions. The effect of various air-to-liquid ratios under super-sonic cross flow conditions are simulated and compared to experimental conditions, which is taken in the supersonic wind tunnel with a dimension of 762 × 152 × 127 mm. An injector with an orifice diameter of 0.5 mm is used both in a non-aerated and aerated injection into a supersonic cross flow prescribed by the momentum flux ratio of the liquid jet to free stream air, q0. The initial conditions of the spray calculation were estimated from internal flow simulation using VOF and X-ray data. The conservation-element and solution-element (CE/SE) method, a novel numerical framework for general conservation law, is applied to simulate the compressible flow. The effect of degree of aeration, breakup, and mixing of the liquid spray are demonstrated. The spray penetration height and average droplet size along with a spray penetration axis are quantitatively compared with data. The shock train flow structures induced by the presence of a liquid jet are further discussed.

Key words

Liquid jet Cross flow Aerated injection Spray penetration Breakup CE/SE method 

Nomenclature

cp, cv

specific heat constants

CD

drag coefficient

D

drag function or drop diameter

d0

nozzle diameter

e

specific internal energy

E

specific total energy

h0

penetration height

L(T)

heat of vaporization

Mx, y, z

momentum exchange terms

Ms

free stream Mach number

M0

initial mass

m

mass

p

pressure

qx, qy, qz

heat flux

Qs

energy exchange term

r

jet radius or drop radius

Re

Reynolds number

u, v, w

velocities

t

time

γ

ratio of specific heats

μ

viscosity

ρ

density

σ

surface tension coefficient

τ

viscous stress

Subscripts

g

gas

k

particle index

l

liquid

x, y, z

spatial coordinates

0

initial value

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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kyoung-Su Im
    • 1
  • Zeng-Chan Zhang
    • 1
  • Grant CookJr.
    • 1
  • Ming-Chia Lai
    • 2
  • Mun Soo Chon
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Livermore Software Technology CorporationLivermoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringWayne State UniversityWayneUSA
  3. 3.Department of Automotive EngineeringKorea National University of TransportationChungbukKorea

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