International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 923–933 | Cite as

Model Based Optimum Pid Gain Design of Adaptive Front Lighting System

  • Shin Hyun Park
  • Byeong Uk Im
  • Dong Kyou Park


Adaptive Front-Lighting System (AFLS) is a system which assists driver's field of vision by automatically controlling its brightness and illumination angle to adapt various driving conditions such as climate, traffic, road changes and so forth. This paper aims to propose novel model-based PID gain design method to improve the performances of Dynamic Bending Light (DBL) module that change horizontal angle of a system by applying Brent-Dekker algorithm that finds the root of nonlinear function and implementing Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm to the system reduction process. Along with the linear system model-based control theory, motor dynamics were modeled with frequency response. Validation of the prototype resulted in having less than 3 % error from the simulation, where position initialization and the real-time status monitoring function is available due to the closed loop control which enables over 3 times faster response than the conventional open-loop system.

Key words

Closed-loop control AFLS (Adaptive Front-Lighting System) DBL (Dynamic Bending Light) Intelligent headlight control PID control Digital control MCU Fail-safe Angle control Headlamp MATLAB/Simulink 



gear reduction ratio


measured dead zone of motor system, V


input voltage upper limit to motor system, V


dead zone voltage after linearization, V


input voltage upper limit after linearization, V


controller command voltage, V


linearized command voltage, V


natural frequency of motor system, rad/s


damping ratio of motor system


electrical speed constant of motor system, V/rad/s


tangential acceleration of vehicle at C.G.


normal acceleration of vehicle at C.G.


forward velocity of vehicle


radius of curvature of vehicle trajectory


proportional gain of inner speed control loop


integral gain of inner speed control loop


derivative gain of inner speed control loop


proportional gain of outer angle control loop


derivative gain of outer angle control loop


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shin Hyun Park
    • 1
  • Byeong Uk Im
    • 2
  • Dong Kyou Park
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringGwangju Institute of Science and TechnologyGwangjuKorea
  2. 2.School of Mechanical & Aerospace EngineeringSeoul National UniversitySeoulKorea
  3. 3.Department of Electromechanical Convergence EngineeringKorea University of Technology and EducationChungnamKorea

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