Energy Consumption Analysis of Different Bev Powertrain Topologies by Design Optimization
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Flexible layout of electric motors in battery electric vehicles (BEVs) has enabled different powertrain topologies to be used. However, these different powertrain topologies also affect the overall efficiency of energy conversion from the electrochemical form stored in the battery to the mechanical form on the driving wheels for vehicle propulsion. In this study, a methodology combining an energy-based BEV simulation model with the genetic algorithm optimization approach is applied to evaluate the energy efficiency of three different BEV powertrain topologies. The analysis is carried out assuming two different urban driving conditions, as exemplified by the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) and the Japanese JC08 drive cycle. Each of the three BEV powertrain topologies is then optimized – in terms of its electric motor size and, where applicable, gear reduction ratio – for minimum energy consumption. The results show that among the three powertrain topologies, the wheel-hub drive without gear reducers consumes the least energy. The energy consumption of BEVs under the more aggressive JC08 drive cycle is consistently 8 % above that under NEDC for all three powertrain topologies considered.
Key wordsBattery electric vehicles Energy consumption Optimal design Powertrain topology Drive cycle analysis
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