Advertisement

International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 771–781 | Cite as

PID Controller Modelling and Optimization in Cr Systems with Standard and Reduced Accumulators

  • Alessandro Ferrari
  • Antonio Mittica
  • Pietro Pizzo
  • Zhiru Jin
Article

Abstract

The proportional-integrative-derivative (PID) controller and the pressure control valve of a Common Rail system are modelled by taking into account electronic, electrical, hydraulic and mechanical aspects. A fully predictive model of the injection apparatus is realized and validated by means of comparison with experimental data. The effects of the PID parameters on the injection system dynamics are illustrated and discussed on the basis of model results, which refer to steadystate and transient working conditions. The influence of the accumulator size on the rail pressure time history is investigated when the rail volume is dramatically reduced (up to 2.5 cm3). In particular, the effect of the large rail pressure drop that occurs at the end of the main injection for Minirail layout solutions is examined when after injections are implemented. An objective is to try to determine possible suitable values of the PID controller parameters and of the pressure-sensor sampling-frequency for rails of reduced size.

Key words

PID control Common rail Fuel injection system modelling Accumulation volume Proportional Integrative and Derivative parts 

Abbreviation

Nomenclature

A

restricted flow-area

C

geometric constant of the magnetic circuit

CR

common rail

D

diameter of the valve seat; derivative part

ET

energizing time

F

force

G

system transfer function; mass flow-rate

I

electric current; integrative part

K

gain

M

mass

P

proportional part

PCV

pressure control valve

PID

proportional-integrative-derivative control

PWM

pulse width modulation

V

volume

S

surface

f

frequency

k

spring stiffness

m

valve armature mass

n

engine speed

p

pressure

x, ,

valve displacement, velocity and acceleration

α

valve-seat cone semi-angle

β

valve damping coefficient

Δp

pressure drop

θ

flux-force angle

μ

flow coefficient

Subscripts

after

after injection

d

derivative part

fl

flux forces

i

integrative part

inj

injected

p

proportional part

mag

magnetic

main

main injection

nom

nominal value

pc

pressure control

tot

total

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Åström, K. J. and Hägglund, T. (1995). PID Controllers: Theory, Design and Tuning. 2nd edn. International Society of America. North Carolina, USA.Google Scholar
  2. Aydogdu, O. and Korkmaz, M. (2011). A simple approach to design of variable parameter nonlinear PID controller. Int. Conf. Advancements in Information Technology, Chennai, India.Google Scholar
  3. Baratta, M., Catania, A. E. and Ferrari, A. (2008). Hydraulic circuit design rules to remove the dependence of the injected fuel amount on dwell time in multijet CRsystems. J. Fluids Engineering 130, 12, 121104–1–121104–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Catania, A. E. and Ferrari, A. (2011). Experimnetal analysis, modelling and control of volumetric radial-piston pumps. J. Fluids Engineering 133, 8, 081103–1–081103–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Catania, A. E. and Ferrari, A. (2012). Development and performance assessment of the new-generation CFfuel injection system for diesel passenger cars. Applied Energy 91, 1, 483–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Catania, A. E., Ferrari, A., Manno, M. and Spessa, E. (2008). Experimental investigation of dynamics effects on multiple-injection common rail system performance. J. Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 130, 3, 032806–1–032806–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Catania, A. E., Ferrari, A. and Spessa, E. (2009). Numericalexperimental study and solutions to reduce the dwelltime threshold for fusion-free consecutive injections in a multijet solenoid-type CRsystem. J. Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 131, 2, 022804–1–022804–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Catania, A. E. and Ferrari, A. (2009). Advanced mathematical modeling of electronic unit injector systems for heavy duty diesel engine application. SAE Int. J. Commercial Vehicles 1, 1, 134–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chien, K. L., Hrones, J. A. and Reswick, J. B. (1952). On the automatic control of generalized passive systems. Trans. American Society of Mechanical Engineeing, 74, 175–185.Google Scholar
  10. Cohen, G. and Coon, G. (1953). Theoretical consideration of retarded control. Trans. ASME, 75, 827–834.Google Scholar
  11. Ferrari, A. and Mittica, A. (2012). FEM modeling of the piezoelectric driving system in the design of directacting diesel injectors. Applied Energy, 99, 471–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ferrari, A., Paolicelli, F. and Pizzo, P. (2015). Hydraulic performance comparison between the newly designed common feeding and standard common rail injection systems for diesel engines. J. Engineering for Gas Turbine and Power 138, 9, 092801–1–092801–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ferrari, A. and Pizzo, P. (2017). Fully predictive common rail fuel injection apparatus model and its application to global system dynamics analyses. Int. J. Engine 18, 3, 273–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ferrari, A. and Salvo, E. (2017). Determination of the transfer function between the injected flow-rate and high-pressure time histories for improved control of common rail diesel engines. Int. J. Engine Research 18, 3, 212–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ferrari, A. and Vitali, R. (2017). Instantaneous torque, energy saving and flow-rate ripple analysis of a Common Rail pump equipped with different delivery-pressure control systems. Int. J. Enegine Research, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1177/1468087417740272.Google Scholar
  16. Gu, J., Zhang, Y. and Gao, D. (2009). Application of nonlinear PID controller in main steam temperature control. Proc. IEEE Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conf., Wuhan, China.Google Scholar
  17. Gude, J. J. and Kahoraho, E. (2012). Kappa-tau type PItuning rules for specified robust levels. IFAC Conf. Advances in PID Control, Brescia, Italy.Google Scholar
  18. Gupta, V. K., Zhang, Z. and Sun, Z. (2011). Modeling and control of a novel pressure regulations mechanism for common rail fuel injection systems. Applied Mathematical Modelling 35, 7, 3473–3483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hagen, J., Herrmann, O. E., Weber, J. and Queck, D. (2016). Diesel combustion potentials by further injector improvements. MTZ Worldwide 77, 4, 16–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hambali, N., Masngut, A., Ishak, A. A. and Janin, Z. (2014). Process controllability for flow control system using Ziegler-Nichols (ZN), Cohen-Coon (CC) and Chien-Hrones-Reswick (CHR) tuning methods. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Smart Instrumentation, Measurement and Applications, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.Google Scholar
  21. Hua, H., Ma, N., Ma, J. and Huang, H. (2013). Design of rail pressure tracking controller for novel fuel injection system. J. Shanghai Jiaotong University 18, 3, 264–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Leonhard, R., Parche, M., Alvarez-Avila, C., Krauß, J. and Rosenau, B. (2009). Pressure-amplified common rail system for commercial vehicles. MTZ Worldwide 70, 5, 10–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Matsumoto, S., Yamada, K. and Date, K. (2012). Concepts and evolution of injector for common rail system. SAE Paper No. 2012–01–1753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Matsumoto, S., Date, K., Taguchi, T. and Herrmann, O. E. (2013). The new denso common rail diesel solenoid injector. MTZ Worldwide 74, 2, 44–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Meek, G., Williams, R., Thornton, D., Knapp, P. and Cosser, S. (2014). F2E–Ultra high pressure distributed pump common rail system. SAE Paper No. 2014–01–1440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Merrit, H. E. (1967). Hydrualic Control Systems. John Wiley & Sons. Hoboken, New Jersey, USA.Google Scholar
  27. Oh, B., Oh, S., Lee, L. and Sunwoo, M. (2007). Development of an injector driver for piezo actuated Common Rail injectors. SAE Paper No. 2007–01–3537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shinohara, Y., Takeuchi, K., Herrmann, O. E. and Laum, H. J. (2011). 3000 bar common rail system. MTZ Worldwide 72, 1, 4–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Xiao, W., Liang, F., Tan, W., Mao, X., Yang, L. and Zhuo, B. (2006). Analysis of common rail pressure build-up and assistant-establishment of engine phase position in starting process. SAE Paper No. 2006–01–3525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ziegler, J. G. and Nichols, N. B. (1942). Optimum settings for automatic controllers. Trans. ASME, 64, 759–768.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alessandro Ferrari
    • 1
  • Antonio Mittica
    • 1
  • Pietro Pizzo
    • 1
  • Zhiru Jin
    • 1
  1. 1.Energy DepartmentPolitecnico di TorinoTorinoItaly

Personalised recommendations