International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 727–742 | Cite as

Design of Regenerative Anti-Lock Braking System Controller for 4 In-Wheel-Motor Drive Electric Vehicle with Road Surface Estimation

  • Andrei Aksjonov
  • Valery Vodovozov
  • Klaus Augsburg
  • Eduard Petlenkov


This paper presents a regenerative anti-lock braking system control method with road detection capability. The aim of the proposed methodology is to improve electric vehicle safety and energy economy during braking maneuvers. Vehicle body longitudinal deceleration is used to estimate a road surface. Based on the estimation results, the controller generates an appropriate braking torque to keep an optimal for various road surfaces wheel slip and to regenerate for a given motor the maximum possible amount of energy during vehicle deceleration. A fuzzy logic controller is applied to fulfill the task. The control method is tested on a four in-wheel-motor drive sport utility electric vehicle model. The model is constructed and parametrized according to the specifications provided by the vehicle manufacturer. The simulation results conducted on different road surfaces, including dry, wet and icy, are introduced.

Key Words

Fuzzy control Anti-lock braking system Electric vehicles Vehicle dynamics Vehicle safety 




wheel angular speed, rad/s


vehicle longitudinal acceleration, m/s2


braking pressure, bar


wheel radius, m


mass of the quarter vehicle, g


gravitational acceleration, m/s2


driving torque, Nm


tire torque, Nm


total braking torque, Nm


regenerative brake torque, Nm


friction brake torque, Nm


inertia about the wheel rotational axis, gm2


braking coefficient


phase torque of motor, Nm


phase current of motor, A


rotor aligned position of motor, °


phase bulk inductance of motor, H


number of phases of motor


vehicle longitudinal velocity, m/s


wheel longitudinal velocity, m/s


wheel slip, %


tire-road friction coefficient


estimated road surface


longitudinal force, N


vertical force, N


net energy consumption, kJ


power spent on driving, W


power recovered via regenerative braking area, W


electric motor efficiency, %


distance, m


average deceleration, m/s2


ABS operation index of performance


average wheel slip, %


actual and optimal wheel slip difference absolute value, %


regenerated power comparing to the total power required for deceleration, %



subscript for each wheel; i ∈ [front left (FL), front right (FR), rear left (RL), rear right (RR)]


switched reluctance motor phase number



4 in-Wheel-motor Drive


Antilock Braking System


Automotive Simulation Models™


Degree of Freedom


Electronic Stability Program


Electric Vehicle


Fuzzy Logic Controller


Internal Combustion Engine


Membership Function


Multiple Input, Single Output




Switched Reluctance Motor


Sport Utility Vehicle


Universe of Discourse


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrei Aksjonov
    • 1
  • Valery Vodovozov
    • 2
  • Klaus Augsburg
    • 3
  • Eduard Petlenkov
    • 4
  1. 1.SKODA AUTO a.s.Mlada BoleslavCzech Republic
  2. 2.Department of Electrical Power Engineering and Mechatronics, School of EngineeringTallinn University of TechnologyTallinnEstonia
  3. 3.Automotive Engineering Group, Department of Mechanical EngineeringTechnische Universität IlmenauIlmenauGermany
  4. 4.Department of Computer Systems, School of Information TechnologiesTallinn University of TechnologyTallinnEstonia

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