International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 623–633 | Cite as

Effect of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Operating Parameters on Particle Number and Size Distribution at Low Speed Condition

  • Bin Yang Wu
  • Qiang Zhan
  • Shun Kai Zhang
  • Xiao Kun Nie
  • Yu Han Li
  • Wanhua Su


Experiments and simulations were used to investigate the effect of a range of engine operating parameters and fuel characteristics on the particle size and particle number (PN) concentration at low speed and idle speed condition. The occurrence, size, and concentration of particles were tested against a range of parameters including start of injection (SOI), common rail pressure, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio and load. The results showed that the homogeneity of the mixture had the greatest impact on particle size and number concentration. The performance of particle is different at different levels of load. The particle were of nucleation mode at idle condition, and the cold idle particles had a slightly larger diameter than those produced at hot idle. By using the diesel and under high load, at EGR ratios of less than 20 %, most particles were of nucleation mode. At EGR ratios exceeding 20 %, nucleation-mode particles were gradually replaced by accumulation-mode particles. At EGR ratios above 30 %, most particles were of the accumulation mode. Under the same load, gasoline compression ignition produced particles of smaller size and reduced particulate mass (PM). The use of gasoline extended ignition delay, as the high volatility and octane number of the fuel improved the homogeneity of the mixture. Finally, a linear relationship was found between PM and PN. The relative contribution of the different factors to the formation of nucleationor accumulation-mode particles was investigated.

Key Words

Particle number Particle diameter Operating parameter Fuel characteristics Equivalence ratio 




revolutions per minute


degrees of crank angle


carbon monoxide


exhaust gas recirculation


hydrocarbon compounds


particulate mass


particle number


start of injection


gasoline direct injection


dimethyl formamide


indicated mean effective pressure


nitrogen oxides



common rail pressure


equivalence ratio


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bin Yang Wu
    • 1
  • Qiang Zhan
    • 1
  • Shun Kai Zhang
    • 1
  • Xiao Kun Nie
    • 1
  • Yu Han Li
    • 1
  • Wanhua Su
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of EnginesTianjin UniversityTianjinChina

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