International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 615–622 | Cite as

Comparison of the Spray and the Spray/Wall Interaction of Two Gasoline Injectors

  • Florian Schulz
  • Frank Beyrau


One important parameter influencing mixture formation and spray/wall interaction within engines is the geometry of the nozzle. In contrast to Diesel nozzles, the influence of the orifice geometry on spray formation has hardly be investigated for gasoline nozzles. In order to demonstrate the potential of adjusting the nozzle geometry of a modern GDI nozzle, we compare two six-hole, high-pressure nozzles with an identical structure, but different rounding radius of the orifice hole-inlet and different orifice hole-geometries: nozzle A with a rounded inlet and an orifice length to diameter ratio of 3/2 and nozzle B with a sharp inlet and an orifice length to diameter ratio of 1. In a first measurement campaign the spray formation is visualized using high-speed shadowgraphy imaging. The results show differences in spray angle and penetration depth. In a second measurement campaign we examine the spray/wall interaction and wall film formation by means of infrared thermography. The thermography measurements indicate that the geometry of nozzle B produces sprays with beneficial characteristics. This is very important for a clean combustion process and a decrease of soot emissions.

Key Words

Nozzle geometry Piston wetting Infrared thermography Heat transfer 




area, m2


pressure, Pa


heat, J


heat flux, W/m2


time, s





after start of injection


spray/wall interaction


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bai, Y., Fan, L. Y., Ma, X. Z., Peng, H. L. and Song, E. Z. (2016). Effect of injector parameters on the injection quantity of common rail injection system for diesel engines. Int. J. Automotive Technology 17, 4, 567–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Breuninger, T., Schmidt, J., Tschöke, H. and Hese, M. (2015). Optical investigations of the ignition-relevant spray characteristics from a piezo-injector for sprayguided spark-ignited engines. SAE Int. J. Engines 8, 1, 89–100Google Scholar
  3. Butcher, A. J., Aleiferis, P. G. and Richardson, D. (2013). Development of a real-size optical injector nozzle for studies of cavitation, spray formation and flash-boiling at conditions relevant to direct-injection spark-ignition engines. Int. J. Engine Research 14, 6, 557–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Choi, S., Myung, C. L. and Park, S. (2014). Review on characterization of nano-particle emissions and PM morphology from internal combustion engines: Part 2 Int. J. Automotive Technology 15, 2, 219–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Heldmann, M., Bornschlegel, S. and Wensing, M. (2015). Investigation of jet-to-jet interaction in sprays for DISI engines. SAE Paper No. 2015–01-1899Google Scholar
  6. Jiao, Q. and Reitz, R. (2015). The effect of operating parameters on soot emissions in GDI engines. SAE Int. J. Engines 8, 3,1322–1333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kalantari, D. and Tropea, C. (2014). Liquid spray impact onto flat and rigid walls: Formation and spreading of accumulated wall film. FDMP 10, 1, 37–61Google Scholar
  8. Khan, M., Hélie, J., Gorokhovski, M. and Sheikh, N. A. (2017). Air entrainment in high pressure multihole gasoline direct injection sprays. J. Applied Fluid Mechanics 10, 4, 1223–1234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Köpple, F., Jochmann, P., Kufferath, A. and Bargende, M. (2013). Investigation of the parameters influencing the spray-wall interaction in a GDI engine-Prerequisite for the prediction of particulate emissions by numerical simulation. SAE Int. J. Engines 6, 2, 911–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lee, C. H. (2017). Effect of nozzle orifice diameter on diesel spray tip penetration according to various spray models for CFD simulation with widely varying back pressure. Int. J. Automotive Technology 18, 2, 317–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lee, C. H., Lee, K. H. and Lim, K. B. (2010). Effects of injection parameters on the spray characteristics of swirl and slit injectors using the Mie-scattering method. Int. J. Automotive Technology 11, 3, 435–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lim, O. T. and Lee, S. J. (2016). Influence of nozzle hole diameter and orifice diameter on dme spray to get the similar heat value with diesel spray using the constant volume chamber. Int. J. Automotive Technology 17, 6, 1023–1031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Merker, G. P., Schwarz, C. and Teichmann, R. (2012). Grundlagen Verbrennungsmotoren: Funktionsweise, Simulation, Messtechnik: PRAXIS. — ATZ/MTZFachbuch. Vieweg+Teubner. Verlag. Wiesbaden, Germany.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Moreira, A., Moita, A. S. and Panaõ, M. R. (2010). Advances and challenges in explaining fuel spray impingement: How much of single droplet impact research is useful?. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 36, 5, 554–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Payri, R., Salvador, F. J., Gimeno, J. and De la Morena, J. (2009). Study of cavitation phenomena based on a technique for visualizing bubbles in a liquid pressurized chamber. Int. J. Heat and Fluid Flow 30, 4, 768–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Schulz, F. and Schmidt, J. (2012). Infrared thermography based fuel film investigations. 12th Trinnial Int. Conf. Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Heidelberg, Germany.Google Scholar
  17. Schulz, F., Schmidt, J., Kufferath, A. and Samenfink, W. (2014). Gasoline wall films and spray/wall interaction analyzed by infrared thermography. SAE Int. J. Engines 7, 3, 1165–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Schulz, F., Samenfink, W., Schmidt, J. and Beyrau, F. (2016). Systematic LIF fuel wall film investigation. Fuel, 172, 284–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Schulz, F. and Beyrau, F. (2017). The influence of flashboiling on spray-targeting and fuel film formation. Fuel, 208, 587–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Shost, M., Lai, M., Befrui, B. and Spiekermann, P. (2014). GDi nozzle parameter studies using LES and spray imaging methods. SAE Paper No. 2014–01-1434Google Scholar
  21. Wetzel, J., Henn, M., Gotthardt, M. and Rottengruber, H. (2015). Experimental investigation of the primary spray development of gdi injectors for different nozzle geometries. SAE Paper No. 2015–01-0911Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chair of Technical ThermodynamicOtto-von-Guericke-University MagdeburgMagdeburgGermany

Personalised recommendations