Design and Evaluation of Robust Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control Systems in Parameter Space

  • Mümin Tolga Emirler
  • Levent Güvenç
  • Bilin Aksun Güvenç


This paper is on the design of cooperative adaptive cruise control systems for automated driving of platoons of vehicles in the longitudinal direction. Longitudinal models of vehicles with simple dynamics, an uncertain first order time constant and vehicle to vehicle communication with a communication delay are used in the vehicle modeling. A robust parameter space approach is developed and applied to the design of the cooperative adaptive cruise control system. D-stability is chosen as the robust performance goal and the feedback PD controller is designed in controller parameter space to achieve this D-stability goal for a range of possible longitudinal dynamics time constants and different values of time gap. Preceding vehicle acceleration is sent to the ego vehicle using vehicle to vehicle communication and a feedforward controller is used in this inter-vehicle loop to improve performance. Simulation results of an eight vehicle platoon of heterogeneous vehicles are presented and evaluated to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed design method. Also, the proposed method is compared with a benchmark controller and the feedback only controller. Time gap regulation and string stability are used to assess performance and the effect of the vehicle to vehicle communication frequency on control system performance is also investigated.

Key Words

Cooperative adaptive cruise control Parameter space control system design D-stability 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ackermann, J., Blue, P., Bünte, T., Güvenç, L., Kaesbauer, D., Kordt, M., Muhler, M. and Odenthal, D. (2002). Robust Control: The Parameter Space Approach. Springer-Verlag London. London, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aksun Güvenç, B. and Kural, E. (2006). Adaptive cruise control simulator: A low-cost, multiple-driver-in-theloop simulator. IEEE Control Systems Magazine, 42–55.Google Scholar
  3. Bu, F., Tan, H.-S. and Huang, J. (2010). Design and field testing of a cooperative adaptive cruise control system. American Control Conf. (ACC), IEEE, Baltimore, MD, USA.Google Scholar
  4. Choi, S. and Hedrick, J. K. (1995). Vehicle longitudinal control using an adaptive observer for automated highway systems. American Control Conf. (ACC), IEEE, Seattle,Washington, USA, 3106–3110.Google Scholar
  5. Demirel, B. and Güvenç, L. (2010). Parameter space design of repetitive controllers for satisfying a robust performance requirement. IEEE Trans. Automatic Control 55, 8, 1893–1899.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. Dey, K. C., Yan, L., Wang, X., Wang, Y., Shen, H., Chowdhury, M., Yu, L., Qui, C. and Soundararaj, V. (2016). A review of communication, driver characteristics, and controls aspects of cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC). IEEE Trans. Intelligent Transportation Systems 17, 2, 491–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gao, F., Dang, D. F., Huang, S. S. and Li, S. E. (2017). Decoupled robust control of vehicular platon with identical controller and rigid information flow. Int. J. Automotive Technology 18, 1, 157–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Güvenç, L. and Ackermann, J. (2001). Links between the parameter space and frequency domain methods of robust control. Int. J. Robust and Nonlinear Control 11, 15, 1435–1453.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. Güvenç, L., Uygan, İ. M. C., Kahraman, K., Karaahmetoğlu, R., Altay, İ., Şentürk, M., Emirler, M. T., Hartavi Karcı, A. E., Aksun Güvenç, B., Altuğ, E., Turan, M. C., Taş, Ö. Ş., Bozkurt, E., Özgüner, Ü., Redmill, K., Kurt, A. and Efendioğlu, B. (2012). Cooperative adaptive cruise control implementation of team mekar at the grand cooperative driving challenge. IEEE Trans. Intelligent Transportation Systems 13, 3, 1062–1074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Güvenç, L., Aksun Güvenç, B., Demirel, B. and Emirler, M. T. (2017). Control of Mechatronic Systems. The IET. London, UK.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. Ioannou, P., Xu, Z., Eckert, S., Clemons, D. and Sieja, T. (1993). Intelligent cruise control: Theory and experiment. Decision and Control, Proc. 32nd IEEE Conf., 1885–1890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kural, E. (2006). Adaptive Cruise Control Design. M. S. Thesis. Istanbul Technical University. Istanbul, Turkey.Google Scholar
  13. Lidström, K., Sjöberg, K., Holmberg, U., Andersson, J., Bergh, F., Bjade, M. and Mak, S. (2012). A modular CACC system integration and design. IEEE Trans. Intelligent Transportation System 13, 3, 1050–1061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Maschuw, J. P., Keßler, G. C. and Abel, D. (2008). LMI-based control of vehicle platoons for robust longitudinal guidance. Proc. 17th IFAC World Cong., 12111–12116.Google Scholar
  15. Naus, G. J., Vugts, R. P., Ploeg, J., van de Molengraft, M. J. and Steinbuch, M. (2010). String-stable CACC design and experimental validation: A frequency-domain approach. IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology 59, 9, 4268–4279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ploeg, J., Semsar-Kazerooni, E., Lijster, G., van de Wouw, N. and Nijmeijer, H. (2015). Graceful degradation of cooperative adaptive cruise control. IEEE Trans. Intelligent Transportation Systems 16, 1, 488–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rajamani, R. (2011). Vehicle Dynamics Control. Springer. New York, USA.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. Swaroop, D. (1995). String Stability of Interconnected Systems: An Application to Platooning in Automated Highway Systems. Ph. D. Dissertation. University of California. Berkeley, USA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Swaroop, D. and Hedrick, J. K. (1996). String stability of interconnected systems. IEEE Trans. Automatic Control 41, 3, 349–357.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. Trudgen, M. and Mohammadpour, J. (2015). Robust cooperative adaptive cruise control design for connected vehicles. Proc. ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conf., Columbus, Ohio, USA.Google Scholar
  21. Yanakiev, D., Eyre, J. and Kanellakopoulos, I. (1998). Longitudinal Control of Heavy Duty Vehicles: Experimental Evaluation. California PATH Research Report, UCB-ITS-PRR-98-15.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mümin Tolga Emirler
    • 1
  • Levent Güvenç
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Bilin Aksun Güvenç
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIstanbul Okan UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Automated Driving Lab in the Center for Automotive ResearchThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  4. 4.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations