Advertisement

Structural Optimization for Roof Crush Test Using an Enforced Displacement Method

  • Wook-Han Choi
  • Youngmyung Lee
  • Jong-Min Yoon
  • Yong-Ha Han
  • Gyung-Jin Park
Article

Abstract

A roof crush test has been utilized to reduce passengers’ injuries from a vehicle rollover. The Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 216 and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) perform actual vehicle tests and evaluate the vehicle’s ratings. Nonlinear dynamic response structural optimization can be employed not only for achievement of a high rating but also minimization of the weight. However, the technique needs a huge computation time and cost because many nonlinear dynamic response analyses are required in the time domain. A novel method is proposed for nonlinear dynamic response structural optimization regarding the roof crush test. The process of the proposed method repeats the analysis domain and the design domain until the convergence criteria are satisfied. In the analysis domain, the roof crush test is simulated using a high fidelity model of nonlinear dynamic finite element analysis. In the design domain, a low fidelity model of linear static response structural optimization is utilized with enforced displacements that come from the analysis domain. Correction factors are employed to compensate the differences between a nonlinear dynamic analysis response and a linear static analysis response with enforced displacement. A full-scale vehicle problem is optimized with a constraint on the rigid wall force from the analysis in the design domain.

Key Words

Roof crush test Structural optimization FMVSS 216 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Cho, Y. H. and Han, B. K. (2012). Roof strength performance improvement enablers. Int. J. Automotive Technology 13, 5, 775–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Choi, W. S. and Park, G. J. (1999). Transformation of dynamic loads into equivalent static loads based on modal analysis. Int. J. Numerical Methods in Engineering 46, 1, 29–43.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. DOT National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2009). FMVSS No. 216a, Roof Crush Resistance.Google Scholar
  4. Green, N. S., Canfield, R. A., Swenson, E. D., Yu, W. and Blair, M. (2009). Structural optimization of joined-wing beam model with bend-twist coupling using equivalent static loads. 50th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conf., Palm Springs, California, USA.Google Scholar
  5. Hong, E. P., You, B. J., Kim, C. H. and Park, G. J. (2010). Optimization of flexible components of multibody systems via equivalent static loads. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization 40, 1–6, 549–562.MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. Jang, H. H., Lee, H. A., Lee, J. Y. and Park, G. J. (2012). Dynamic response topology optimization in the time domain using equivalent static loads. AIAA Journal 50, 1, 226–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jang, H. H., Lee, Y. and Park, G. J. (2016). Optimization of the loading path for the tube-hydroforming process. Proc. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: J. Automobile Engineering 230, 12, 1605–1623.Google Scholar
  8. Jeong, S. B., Yi, S. I., Kan, C. D., Nagabhushana, V. and Park, G. J. (2008). Structural optimization of an automobile roof structure using equivalent static loads. Proc. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: J. Automobile Engineering 222, 11, 1985–1995.Google Scholar
  9. Jeong, S. B., Yoon, S., Xu, S. and Park, G. J. (2010). Nonlinear dynamic response structural optimization of an automobile frontal structure using equivalent static loads. Proc. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: J. Automobile Engineering 224, 4, 489–501.Google Scholar
  10. Kahane, C. J. (1989). An Evaluation of Door Locks and Roof Crush Resistance of Passenger Cars, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards 206 and 216. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Washington DC, USA.Google Scholar
  11. Kim, Y. I. and Park, G. J. (2010). Nonlinear dynamic response structural optimization using equivalent static loads. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 199, 9, 660–676.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. Lee, H. A. and Park, G. J. (2015). Nonlinear dynamic response topology optimization using the equivalent static loads method. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 283, 956–970.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lee, S. J., Lee, H. A., Yi, S. I., Kim, D. S., Yang, H. W. and Park, G. J. (2013). Design flow for the crash box in a vehicle to maximize energy absorption. Proc. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: J. Automobile Engineering 227, 2, 179–200.Google Scholar
  14. Lee, Y., Yoon, J. M. and Park, G. J. (2016). A novel method for roof crush optimization using enforced displacements. Asian Cong. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, Nagasaki, Japan.Google Scholar
  15. Lim, J. H., Park, J. S., Yun, Y. W., Jeong, S. B. and Park, G. J. (2015). Design of an airbag system of a mid-sized automobile for pedestrian protection. Proc. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: J. Automobile Engineering 229, 5, 656–669.Google Scholar
  16. Livermore Software Technology Co. (2007). LS-DYNA User’s Manual.Google Scholar
  17. Mao, M., Chirwa, E. and Chen, T. (2007). Reinforcement of vehicle roof structure system against rollover occupant injuries. Int. J. Crashworthiness 12, 1, 41–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. MSC Software Co. (2013). NASTRAN User’s Guide.Google Scholar
  19. Müllerschön, H., Erhart, A. and Schumacher, P. (2013). Topology and topometry optimization of crash applications with the equivalent static load method. 10th World Cong. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, Orlando, Florida, USA.Google Scholar
  20. Niknejad, A., Abdolzadeh, Y., Rouzegar, J. and Abbasi, M. (2015). Experimental study on the energy absorption capability of circular corrugated tubes under lateral loading and axial loading. Proc. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: J. Automobile Engineering 229, 13, 1739–1761.Google Scholar
  21. Pan, F. and Zhu, P. (2011). Design optimisation of vehicle roof structures: Benefits of using multiple surrogates. Int. J. Crashworthiness 16, 1, 85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Park, G. J. (2011). Technical overview of the equivalent static loads method for non-linear static response structural optimization. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization 43, 3, 319–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rechnitzer, G., Lane, J. and Scott, G. (1996). Rollover crash study — Vehicle design and occupant injuries. 15th Int. Technical Conf. Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.Google Scholar
  24. Seo, J. H., Lee, E. D., Lee, J. W. and Han, B. K. (2016). Effect of tumble-home on roof strength of a vehicle. Int. J. Automotive Technology 17, 4, 665–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Strashny, A. (2007). An Analysis of Motor Vehicle Rollover Crashes and Injury Outcomes. Report DOT HS 810 741. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.Google Scholar
  26. Tey, J. Y., Ramli, R. and Abdullah, A. S. (2016). A new multi-objective optimization method for full-vehicle suspension systems. Proc. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: J. Automobile Engineering 230, 11, 1443–1458.Google Scholar
  27. Vanderplaats Research and Development, Inc. (2014). GENESIS User’s Manual Version 13.1 Design Reference.Google Scholar
  28. Wang, C. Q., Wang, D. F. and Zhang, S. (2016). Design and application of lightweight multi-objective collaborative optimization for a parametric body-in-white structure. Proc. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: J. Automobile Engineering 230, 2, 273–288.Google Scholar
  29. Yi, S. I., Lee, J. Y. and Park, G. J. (2012). Crashworthiness design optimization using equivalent static loads. Proc. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: J. Automobile Engineering 226, 1, 23–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yun, Y. W., Choi, J. S. and Park, G. J. (2014). Optimization of an automobile curtain airbag using the design of experiments. Proc. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: J. Automobile Engineering 228, 4, 370–380.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wook-Han Choi
    • 1
  • Youngmyung Lee
    • 2
  • Jong-Min Yoon
    • 1
  • Yong-Ha Han
    • 3
  • Gyung-Jin Park
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringHanyang UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringHanyang UniversityGyeonggiKorea
  3. 3.Advanced Safety CAE GroupHyundai Motor GroupGyeonggiKorea

Personalised recommendations