Reliability of Nanofluid Concentration on the Heat Transfer Augmentation in Engine Radiator

  • Ibrahim Elbadawy
  • Mohamed Elsebay
  • Mohamed Shedid
  • Mohamed Fatouh


Nanofluids, the fluid suspensions of nanomaterial, became a promising fluid that is invoked when heat transfer increase is required. Using of nanofluids as a coolant in the engine radiators is a crucial topic for the thermal engines manufactrers due to the expected enhancement in the cooling process. In this study, Two nanofluids (Al2O3/water and CuO/water) flowing in a flat tube of radiator are investigated numerically to evaluate thermal and flow performance. The resizing process for the radiator is performed by using nanofluid instead of water flow. A significant reduction in the radiator volume is achieved due to marked improvement in the heat transfer performance while, the required pumping power after this reduction in the volume is increased over that needed for base fluid. The normalized heat transfer (heat transfer to the pumping power) is found to be a function of both Reynolds number and nanofluid concentration ratio while the ratio of the normalized heat transfer is found to be dependent only on the nanofluid concentration ratio. These dependencies are formulated as general correlations.

Key Words

Sizing Radiator Heat transfer enhancement Concentration ratio Nanofluids 



tube cross sectional area, m2


skin friction coefficient, −


specific heat, J/kg.k


hydraulic diameter, m.


heat transfer coefficient, W/m2.K


outside heat transfer coefficient, W/m2.K


ratio of heat transfer coefficients, hav,nf/hav,bf, −


thermal conductivity, W/m.K


tube length, m

mass flow rate, kg/s


nusselt number, −


pressure, Pa


perimeter, m


pumping power, W


velocity, m/s


axial distance from inlet, m


non-dimensional quantity a = Q/P, −


ratio of normalized heat transfer for nanofluid to that of pure water (αr = αnf /αbf), −


ratio of the nanolayer thickness to the original particle radius, β = 0.1, −


nanoparticle volumetric concentration, %


dynamic viscosity, kg/m.s


density, kg/m3


shear stress, N/m2









base fluid












local axial position


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akbarinia, A. and Behzadmehr, A. (2007). Numerical study of laminar mixed convection of a nanofluid in horizontal curved tubes. Applied Thermal Engineering 27, 8–9, 1327–1337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ansys Fluent 14.0 (2011). User Guide. Ansys. Inc. Southpointe, Canonsburg.Google Scholar
  3. Bejan, A. (2004). Convection Heat Transfer. 4th edn. John Wiley & Sons. New York, USA.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. Duangthongsuk, W. and Wongwises, S. (2010). Comparison of the effects of measured and computed thermophysical properties of nanofluids on heat transfer performance. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 34, 5, 616–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Elsebay, M., Elbadawy, I., Shedid, M. H. and Fatouh, M. (2016). Numerical resizing study of Al2O3 and CuO nanofluids in the flat tubes of a radiator. Applied Mathematical Modelling 40, 13–14, 6437–6450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Frass, A. P. (1989). Heat Exchanger Design. 2nd edn. John Wiley & Sons. New York, USA.Google Scholar
  7. Dawood, H. K., Mohammed, H. A., Sidik, N. A. C. and Munisamy, K. M. (2015). Numerical investigation on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of laminar and turbulent flow in an elliptic annulus utilizing nanofluid. Int. Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 66, 148–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hsieh, C.-T. and Jang, J.-Y. (2007). 3-D thermal-hydraulic analysis for airflow over a radiator and engine room. Int. J. Automotive Technology 8, 5, 659–666.Google Scholar
  9. Huminic, G. and Huminic, A. (2013). Numerical analysis of laminar flow heat transfer of nanofluids in a flattened tube. Int. Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 44, 52–57.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. Hussein, A. M., Bakar, R. A. and Kadirgama, K. (2014). Study of forced convection nanofluid heat transfer in the automotive cooling system. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, 2, 50–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Incropera, F. P., Dewitt, D. P., Bergman, T. L. and Lavine, A. S. (2007). Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. 7th edn. Hoboken Wiley. New Jersey, USA.Google Scholar
  12. Kanyar, A., Saidur, R. and Hasanuzzaman, M. (2012). Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for nanofluids. Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer 55, 15–16, 4104–4115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kumar, P. (2011). A CFD study of heat transfer enhancement in pipe flow with Al2O3 nanofluid. World Academy of Science, 81, 746–750.Google Scholar
  14. Maiga, S., Palm, S. J., Nguyen, C. T., Roy, G. and Galanis, N. (2005). Heat transfer enhancement by using nanofluids in forced convection flows. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 26, 4, 530–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Oosthuizen, P. H. and Naylor, D. (1999). Introduction to Convective Heat Transfer Analysis. 6th edn. McGraw-Hill. New York, USA.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. Park, K. W. and Pak, H. Y. (2002). Flow and heat transfer characteristics in flat tubes of a radiator. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications: Int. J. Computation and Methodology 41, 1, 19–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Patankar, S. V. (1980). Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow. 1st edn. Hemisphere. Washington, USA.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. Shah, R. K. and London, A. L. (1978). Laminar Flow Forced Convection in Ducts. Academic Press. New York, USA.Google Scholar
  19. Vajjha, R. S., Das, D. K. and Namburu, P. K. (2010). Numerical study of fluid dynamic and heat transfer performance of Al2O3 and CuO nanofluids in the flat tubes of a radiator. Int. J. Heat and Fluid Flow 31, 4, 613–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wang, X., Xu, X. and Choi, S. U. S. (1999). Thermal conductivity of nanoparticles — Fluid mixture. J. Thermophysics Heat Transfer 13, 4, 474–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Yu, W. and Choi, S. U. S. (2003). The role of interfacial layers in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids: A renovated maxwell model. J. Nanoparticle Research 5, 1–2, 167–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Zhao, N., Yang, J., Li, H., Zhang, Z. and Li, S. (2016). Numerical investigations of laminar heat transfer and flow performance of Al2O3-water nanofluids in a flat tube. Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer, 92, 268–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ibrahim Elbadawy
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mohamed Elsebay
    • 1
  • Mohamed Shedid
    • 1
    • 3
  • Mohamed Fatouh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering at El-MattariaHelwan UniversityCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering and TechnologyAmerican University of the Middle EastEqailaKuwait
  3. 3.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentSur University CollegeSurOman

Personalised recommendations