International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 147–157 | Cite as

Hydraulic control system design for a PHEV considering motor thermal management

  • Jingyu Choi
  • Kyunggook Bae
  • Junbeom Wi
  • Sunghyun Ahn
  • Hyunsoo Kim
Article

Abstract

In this paper, a design method for a PHEV hydraulic control system was proposed considering motor thermal management. Dynamic models of the target PHEV were developed including the hydraulic system, which consists of one mechanical and one electric oil pump. The required motor cooling flow was designed based on the motor temperature, which was obtained from a one-dimensional thermal equivalent circuit model including the heat source and oil spray cooling. Combining the PHEV powertrain model, hydraulic control system model, and the motor thermal model including the cooling system, an integrated simulator was developed for the target PHEV. Using the integrated simulator, the temperatures of MG1 and MG2 were investigated for various motor cooling flow rates when the PHEV underwent a highway driving cycle. The energy consumption of the hydraulic control system was also evaluated. It was found from the simulation results that a hydraulic control system of the target PHEV could be designed that satisfied the required flow for the motor cooling, lubrication and brake control using the design procedure proposed in this study.

Keywords

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle Hydraulic control system Motor cooling Thermal equivalent circuit model Energy consumption 

Nomenclature

T

torque, Nm

ω

rotational speed, rad/s

D

pump displacement, cc/rev / diameter, m

P

pressure displacement, N/m2 / power, W

η

efficiency, -

Q

flow rate, lpm / heat, W / battery capacity, Ah

E

energy consumption, J / electromotive force, J/C

A

area, m2

R

radius, m / resistance, ohm

μ

friction coefficient, -

N

number of clutch plates, -

F

force, N

I

phase current, A

ka

torque constant

V

velocity, m/s

L

length, m

U

voltage, V

M

vehicle mass, kg

C

coefficient

g

gravitational acceleration, m/s2

θ

gradient angle, rad

ρ

air density, kg/m3

Subscripts

MOP

mechanical oil pump

EOP

electric oil pump

dmd

demanded

mech

mechanical

vol

volumetric

f

final

i

initial

lub

lubrication flow

max

maximum

c

control

b

brake

eff

effective radius

MG

motor/generator

copper

copper loss

rms

root means square

iron

iron loss

coolant

sprayed cooling flow

n

nth

e

engine

ir

internal resistance

tr

traction

road load

road load

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bergman, T. L., Lavine, A. S., Incropera, F. P. and Dewitt, D. P. (2011). Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. John Wiley & Sons. Hoboken, New Jersey, USA.Google Scholar
  2. Craiu, O., Machedon, A., Tudorache, T., Morega, M. and Modreanu, M. (2010). 3D finite element thermal analysis of a small power PM DC motor. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM), 389–394.Google Scholar
  3. Chien, C. and Jang, J. (2008). 3-D numerical and experimental analysis of a built-in motorized high-speed spindle with helical water cooling channel. Applied Thermal Engineering 28, 17, 2327–2336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Demetriades, G. D., De La Parra, H. Z., Andersson, E. and Olsson, H. (2010). A real-time thermal model of a permanent-magnet synchronous motor. IEEE Trans. Power Electronics 25, 2, 463–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fan, J., Zhang, C., Wang, Z., Dong, Y., Nino, C. E., Tariq, A. R. and Strangas, E. G. (2010). Thermal analysis of permanent magnet motor for the electric vehicle application considering driving duty cycle. IEEE Trans. Magnetics 46, 6, 2493–2496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jafari, M. (2014). Analysis of Heat Transfer in Spray Cooling Systems Using Numerical Simulations. M. S. Thesis. University of Windsor. Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  7. JinXin, F., ChengNing, Z., ZhiFu, W. and Strangas, E. G. (2010). Thermal analysis of water cooled surface mount permanent magnet electric motor for electric vehicle. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), 1024–1028.Google Scholar
  8. Kim, Y., Lee, J., Jo, C., Kim, Y., Song, M., Kim, J. and Kim, H. (2011). Development and control of an electric oil pump for automatic transmission-based hybrid electric vehicle. IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology 60, 5, 1981–1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kim, Y., Song, M., Kim, J., Lee, H. and Kim, H. (2012). Power-based control of an electric oil pump for an automatic-transmission-based hybrid electric vehicle. Proc. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: J. Automobile Engineering 226, 8, 1088–1099.Google Scholar
  10. Kwak, J., Kim, K. and Hong, J. (2013). Temperature prediction of wound rotor synchronous machine using thermal equivalent circuit. Spring Conf. Proc., Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, 1928–1932.Google Scholar
  11. Kim, T., Yoo, Y., Na, J., Ryu, K., Moon, Y., Lee, J., Lee, J., Park, C. and Moon, S. (2014). Steady-state thermal analysis of 5 kW IPMSM using thermal equivalent circuit. Trans. Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B 38, 11, 951–956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kim, D., Kwon, S., Jung, J. and Hong, J. (2008). Prediction of temperature using equivalent thermal network in SPMSM. Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers Summer Conf., 206–206.Google Scholar
  13. Lee, J., Kim, Y., Song, M., Jo, C., Kim, Y., Kim, J. and Kim, H. (2009). Development of electric oil pump control strategy for 6-speed automatic transmission based parallel HEV. KSAE Annual Conf. Proc., Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, 2986–2991.Google Scholar
  14. Lee, Y., Lee, H., Hahn, S. Y. and Lee, K. S. (1997). Temperature analysis of induction motor with distributed heat sources by finite element method. IEEE Trans. Magnetics 33, 2, 1718–1721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lim, D. and Kim, S. (2014). Thermal performance of oil spray cooling system for in-wheel motor in electric vehicles. Applied Thermal Engineering 63, 2, 577–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lee, Y., Hahn, S. Y. and Kauh, S. K. (2000). Thermal analysis of induction motor with forced cooling channels. IEEE Trans. Magnetics 36, 4, 1398–1402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Negrea, M. and Rosu, M. (2001). Thermal analysis of a large permanent magnet synchronous motor for different permanent magnet rotor configurations. Electric Machines and Drives Conf., IEMDC, IEEE Int., 777–781.Google Scholar
  18. NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) (1998). MG 1: Motors and Generators. ANSI/NEMA MG, 1–2009.Google Scholar
  19. Renato, Y., Rafael, F., Luis, T., Marcílio, E., Ramos, Jr. and Nelson, K. (2010). Use of thermal network on determining the temperature distribution inside electric motors in steady-state and dynamic conditions. IEEE Transactions on industry applic. IEEE Trans. Industry Applications 46, 5, 1787–1795.Google Scholar
  20. Santos, A., McGuckin, N., Nakamoto, H. Y., Gray, D. and Liss, S. (2011). Summary of Travel Trends: 2009 National Household Travel Survey. U.S. Department of Transportation. FHWA PL ll 022.Google Scholar
  21. Song, M., Oh, J., Choi, S., Kim, Y. and Kim, H. (2014). Optimal line pressure control for an automatic transmission-based parallel hybrid electric vehicle considering mode change and gear shift. Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 6, 216098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sarkar, D., Mukherjee, P. K. and Sen, S. K. (1991). Use of 3-dimensional finite elements for computation of temperature distribution in the stator of an induction motor. IEE Proc. B - Electric Power Applications 138, 2, 75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Staton, D., Boglietti, A. and Cavagnino, A. (2005). Solving the more difficult aspects of electric motor thermal analysis in small and medium size industrial induction motors. IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion 20, 3, 620–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Son, H. and Kim, H. (2016). Development of near optimal rule-based control for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles taking into account drivetrain component losses. Energies 9, 6, 420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tassi, A., Zanocchi, G. and Staton, D. (2006). FEM and lumped circuit thermal analysis of external rotor motor. IEEE Industrial Electronics, IECON Annual Conf., 4825–4828.Google Scholar
  26. Zhang, Y., Ruan, J., Hunag, T., Yang, X., Zhu, H. and Yang, G. (2012). Calculation of temperature rise in aircooled induction motors through 3-D coupled electromagnetic fluid-dynamical and thermal finiteelement analysis. IEEE Trans. Magnetics 48, 2, 1047–1050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zhang, X., Li, C., Kum, D. and Peng, H. (2011). Prius(+) and Volt(-): Configuration analysis of power-split hybrid vehicles with a single-parallel hybrid electric vehicle. IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology 61, 8, 2354–2363.Google Scholar
  28. Zhou, L., Leland, Q., Gregory, E., Brokaw, W., Chow, L., Lin, Y. R. and Woodburn, D. (2010). Lumped node thermal modeling of EMA with FEA validation. SAE Paper No. 2010-01-1749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jingyu Choi
    • 1
  • Kyunggook Bae
    • 1
  • Junbeom Wi
    • 1
  • Sunghyun Ahn
    • 1
  • Hyunsoo Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringSungkyunkwan UniversityGyeonggiKorea

Personalised recommendations