International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 121–134 | Cite as

System power loss optimization of electric vehicle driven by front and rear induction motors

  • Binbin Sun
  • Song Gao
  • Chao Ma
  • Junwei Li


Power loss optimization aiming at the high-efficiency drive of front-and-rear-induction-motor-drive electric vehicle (FRIMDEV) as an effective way to improve energy efficiency and extend driving range is of high importance. Different from the traditional look-up table method of motor efficiency, power loss optimization of the dual- motor system based on the loss mechanism of induction motor (IM) is proposed. First of all, based on the power loss characteristic of FRIMDEV from battery to wheels, the torque distribution optimization model aiming at the minimum system power loss is put forward. Secondly, referring to d-q axis equivalent model of IM, the power loss functions of the dual-IM system are modeled. Then, the optimal torque distribution coefficient (β o) between the two IMs is derived, and the theoretical switching condition (T sw) between the single- and dual-motor-drive mode (SMDM and DMDM) is confirmed. Finally, a dual-motor test platform is developed. The derived torque distribution strategy is verified. The influence of motor temperature on β o and T sw are tested, and the correction models based on temperature difference are proposed. Based on the system power loss analysis, it can be confirmed that, under low load conditions, the SMDM takes priority over the DMDM, and the controller of the idling motor should be shut down to avoid the additional excitation loss. While under middle to high load conditions, even torque distribution (β o = 0.5) is preferred if the temperature difference between the two IMs is small; otherwise, β o should be corrected based on dual-motor temperatures. The theoretical T sw derived without dealing with temperature difference is a function only of motor speed, while temperature difference correction of it should be conducted in actual operations based on motor resistance changing with temperature.


Front-and-rear-motor-drive electric vehicle Induction motor Power loss optimization Motor loss model Temperature difference correction 



overall energy transfer efficiency of the front and rear power train systems


output power of battery (W)

Pinvl, Pml, Ptl

power loss caused by inverter, motor and transmission system (W)


power distribution coefficient between the two motors


unit conversion factor

Pf, Pr

power distributed to front and rear powertrain (W)


torque requirement of driver (N·m)

wf, wr

front and rear motor speed (rad·s−1)


mechanical loss of the dual transmission systems


overall power loss model of the two motors


maximum speed of motor (rad·s−1)

ff(βTd, wf), fr((1−β)Td, wr)

loss function of the front and rear motor system

isqc, irqc

iron loss current of stator and rotor in q-axis (A)


q-axis stator current divided into torque current (A)


d-axis stator current (A)

we, wro

synchronous angular and electrical angular speed (rad·s−1)

Rrc, Rsc

equivalent resistance of iron loss in rotor and stator (Ω)


number of pole pairs


electromagnetic torque of IM (N·m)

Lm, Lr

mutual and rotor inductance (H)


excitation time constant


flux linkage (Wb)


ratio coefficient


motor load (N·m)

Rsi, Rri

stator and rotor winding resistance (Ω)

Pm, Ps, Pcu, PFe

friction loss, stray loss, cooper loss and iron loss (W)


maximum phase current (A)


d-axis rated current of stator (A)


maximum q-axis current in stator (A)

\(\sigma = 1 - \frac{{L_m^2}}{{{L_1}{L_s}}}\)

eakage coefficient


maximum allowed voltage (V)


stator inductance (H)


mechanical power loss caused by the motored front powertrain system (W)


ratio of stator resistance in front motor to that in rear one


ratio of rotor resistance in front motor to that in rear one

id, iq

excitation current and torque current of motor (A)


corrected switching torque (N·m)


reference value of the switching torque (N·m)

K2’ and K3

temperature correction coefficients



front powertrain system


rear powertrain system


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Transportation and Vehicle EngineeringShandong University of TechnologyZiboChina

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