International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 911–922 | Cite as

Modeling and control of engine starting for a full hybrid electric vehicle based on system dynamic characteristics

  • Yonggang LiuEmail author
  • Daqi Chen
  • Zhenzhen Lei
  • Datong Qin
  • Yi Zhang
  • Rui Wu
  • Yong Luo


This paper focuses on the dynamic modeling and control of engine starting for a Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle (FHEV) consisting of an Integrated Starter Generator (ISG) and Dual Clutch Transmissions (DCTs). The dynamic characteristics of the engine, the ISG motor and the main clutch are analyzed respectively. The dynamic models of the main components of the powertrain system are also established taking the system dynamic characteristics into consideration. The FHEV dynamic model of engine starting during electric driving mode has been investigated in detail. The coordinated control strategy of engine starting has been proposed based on the powertrain system dynamic characteristics. The simulation for the engine starting control during electric driving mode has been performed based on the Matlab/Simulink platform. The simulation results show that the proposed control strategy satisfies the requirements of response and smoothness during engine starting process. Furthermore, a bench test has been carried out to analyze the system characteristics during engine starting process. The test data is highly agreeable to the simulation data and the effectiveness of engine starting control strategy is validated by the comparison between simulation results and the test data.


Hybrid electric vehicle Dual clutch transmissions Modeling Simulation Experiment 




rate of air mass flow in manifold and port passage


air mass flow rate past throttle plate


air mass flow rate into cylinder


injected fuel mass flow


cylinder port fuel mass flow


fuel film mass flow


fuel vapor mass flow


flow coefficient of throttle body throat


is the throttle plate angle


volume of manifold and port passage


engine indicated torque


engine loading torque


spark advance angle


engine indicated efficiency


air/fuel ratio


low BTU of fuel


d-axis voltage


q-axis voltage


d-axis current


q-axis current


d-axis inductance


q-axis inductance


pole pairs of permanent magnet synchronous motor


magnet flux of permanent magnet synchronous motor


magnet flux


magnet field intensity


of magnetic circuit


armature displacement


initial compression displacement of the HSV return spring


average flow of supplying port


average flow of recycle port


net flow from the HSV to hydraulic cylinder


duty ratio


hydraulic cylinder piston displacement



main clutch driven plate


main clutch driving plate






main clutch




Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahn, K. and Cha, S. W. (2008). Developing mode shift strategies for a two-mode hybrid powertrain with fixed gears. SAE Int. J. Passenger Cars Mechanical Systems 1, 1, 285–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asl, H. A., Saeedi, M., Fraser, R., Goossens, P. and Mcphee, J. (2013). Mean value engine model including spark timing for powertrain control application. SAE Paper No. 2013-01-0247.Google Scholar
  3. Broomhead, T., Manzie, C., Brear, M. and Hield, P. (2015). Model reduction of diesel mean value engine models. SAE Paper No. 2015-01-1248.Google Scholar
  4. Cho, B. H., Oh, J. S. and Lee, W. H. (2002). Modeling of pulse width modulation pressure control system for automatic transmission. SAE Paper No. 2002-01-1257.Google Scholar
  5. He, Y. and Lin, C. C. (2007). Development and validation of a mean value engine model for integrated engine and control system simulation. SAE Paper No. 2007-01-1304.Google Scholar
  6. Hendricks, E. and Sorenson, S. C. (1990). Mean value modelling of spark ignition engines. SAE Paper No. 900616.Google Scholar
  7. Hendricks, E. and Vesterholm, T. (1992). The analysis of mean value SI engine models. SAE Paper No. 920682.Google Scholar
  8. Hendricks, E., Chevalier, A., Jensen, M., Sorenson, S. C., Trumpy, D. and Asik, J. (1996). Modelling of the intake manifold filling dynamics. SAE Paper No. 960037.Google Scholar
  9. Hendricks, E., Vesterholm, T. and Sorenson, S. C. (1992). Nonlinear, closed loop, SI engine control observers. SAE Paper No. 920237.Google Scholar
  10. Ke, L., Zhang, C., Cui, N. and Ma, M. (2008). High dynamic response control of induction motor in high-speed region for electric vehicle drive system. IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf., 3093–3097.Google Scholar
  11. Kim, H., Kim, J., Lee, H., Kim, H., Kim, J. and Lee, H. (2011). Mode transition control using disturbance compensation for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle. Proc. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: J. Automobile Engineering 225, 2, 150–166.Google Scholar
  12. Kim, T. and Vodyakho, O. (2009). Brushless PM machine drive in electric and hybrid electric vehicles based on the space vector current control. Int. J. Automotive Technology 10, 6, 711–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lee, J. H., Lee, H. J. and Sunwoo, M. (2014). Nonlinear sliding mode observer for exhaust manifold pressure estimation in a light-duty diesel engine. Int. J. Automotive Technology 15, 3, 377–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Liu, J. R., Jin, B., Xie, Y. J., Chen, Y. and Weng, Z. T. (2009). Research on the electro-hydraulic variable valve actuation system based on a three-way proportional reducing valve. Int. J. Automotive Technology 10, 1, 27–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ma, Y., Huang, K., Xiang, C. and Wang, W. (2015). A control strategy to reduce torque variation for dual-mode power-split hybrid electric vechile during mode shift. IEEE Int. Conf., Modelling, Identification and Control (ICMIC).Google Scholar
  16. Manyala, J. and Atashbar, M. (2013). Electromagnetic actuator dynamic response prediction for an automated mechanical transmission. SAE Int. J. Commercial Vehicles 6, 1, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Meng, F., Zhang, H., Cao, D. and Chen, H. (2015). System modeling and pressure control of a clutch actuator for heavy-duty automatic transmission systems. IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology 65, 7, 4865–4874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Meng, Z., Chen, R. and An, Y. (2013). Direct torque control of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors based on sensorless control and fuzzy controller. Int. Conf. Intelligent Human-Machine Systems & Cybernetics, IEEE Computer Society 756, 759, 556–559.Google Scholar
  19. Oh, S. C. (2005). Evaluation of motor characteristics for hybrid electric vehicles using the hardware-in-the-loop concept. IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology 54, 3, 817–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Smith, A., Bucknor, N., Yang, H. and He, Y. (2011). Controls development for clutch-assisted engine starts in a parallel hybrid electric vehicle. SAE Paper No. 2011-01-0870.Google Scholar
  21. Somayajula, D., Meintz, A. and Ferdowsi, M. (2009). Designing efficient hybrid electric vehicles. IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine 4, 2, 65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Song, M., Oh, J. and Kim, H. (2012). Engine clutch control algorithm during mode change for parallel hybrid electric vehicle. IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conf., 1118–1121.Google Scholar
  23. Wu, H., Wang, X., Winsor, R. and Baumgard, K. (2011). Mean value engine modeling for a diesel engine with gtpower 1d detail model. SAE Paper No. 2011-01-1294.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yonggang Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Daqi Chen
    • 1
  • Zhenzhen Lei
    • 1
  • Datong Qin
    • 1
  • Yi Zhang
    • 3
  • Rui Wu
    • 1
  • Yong Luo
    • 2
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmissions & School of Automotive EngineeringChongqing UniversityChongqingChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Advanced Manufacture Technology for Automobile Parts, Ministry of EducationChongqing University of TechnologyChongqingChina
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of Michigan-DearbornWashingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations