International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 891–900 | Cite as

Optimization of power management among an engine, battery and ultra-capacitor for a series HEV: A dynamic programming application

  • Jongryeol Jeong
  • Namwook Kim
  • Wonsik Lim
  • Yeong-Il Park
  • Suk Won Cha
  • Myeong Eon Jang


In a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system, it is an important issue on how to distribute the output power from multiple power generating components to operate a vehicle more efficiently. Many studies have been conducted on how to manage multiple power sources of a vehicle based on various optimization theories. In this study, an algorithm to calculate the optimization of a series HEV that has three power generating components, engine, battery and ultra-capacitor, is developed based on dynamic programming. Normally dynamic programming is applied to the optimization of power management and components sizing by estimating potential fuel economy for electrified vehicle such as HEV, Plug-in HEV or Fuelcell HEV. In contrast with most objective systems that have only two power generating components, the system in this study has three power sources. Since the system has three power sources, the number of state and control variables of optimization problem increases. Therefore the number of calculations increases unreasonably. To decrease the number and time of calculations, a new electric model that contains the both characteristics of battery and ultra-capacitor is developed with some assumptions. In comparison with the optimization algorithm which follows the theory of DP with no assumptions, the results from the newly developed algorithm has 1.04 % discrepancy in terms of fuel economy, even though the calculation time decreases to 4400 times less.


Power management optimization Dynamic programming Backward simulation Fuel economy Series hybrid electric vehicle 




current, A


total cost of optimization problem


number of step


cost of step


total number of step


power, W


quantity of power source, Ah


resistance, Ω


state of charge of energy storage system


control variable


voltage, V


state variable




polarization time constant


bat, eng, ulc

power source component models

aux, ctrl, mot, trans, veh

powertrain and consumption models


electric energy model




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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jongryeol Jeong
    • 1
  • Namwook Kim
    • 2
  • Wonsik Lim
    • 3
  • Yeong-Il Park
    • 4
  • Suk Won Cha
    • 1
  • Myeong Eon Jang
    • 5
  1. 1.School of Mechanical & Aerospace EngineeringSeoul National UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringHanyang UniversityGyeonggiKorea
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical & Automotive EngineeringSeoul National University of Science and TechnologySeoulKorea
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical System and Design EngineeringSeoul National University of Science and TechnologySeoulKorea
  5. 5.Agency of Defense DevelopmentDaejeonKorea

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