International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 875–882 | Cite as

Two-phase evaporative battery thermal management technology for EVs/HEVs

  • Rahman AtaurEmail author
  • Mohammed Nurul Amin Hawlader
  • Helmi Khalid


Electric vehicle’s motor draws power from battery to meet its power demand in different road profiles. Battery high discharged currents are causes of warming battery’s cells. The temperature of 40 ºC and above reduces battery life span. The rationale of fuzzy controlled evaporative battery thermal management system (EC-BThMS) development from this study is to control the battery temperature in the range of 20 ~ 40 ºC both in charging/discharging modes. The proposed system has been developed with estimating the total cooling loads and thermal behavior of the battery cells. A fuzzy controlling system has been introduced with the EC-BThMS to control the electro-compressor and the expansion valve based on the response of battery temperature sensors.A battery pack of 8.6 kWh equipped EV has been operated with 60 km/h on 0 % gradient and 40 km/h on 5 % gradient in IIUM campus while 130 km/h on 0 % gradient and 50 km/h on 3.67 % gradient in Malaysia International Formula circuit to study the battery temperature profile and percentage of battery power saving. Comparison has been made on the performance of EC-BThMS with air cooling battery thermal management system (AC-BThMS) by using same vehicle. Result shows that EC-BThMS can save energy 17.69 % more than AC-BThM 1 and 23 % more than AC-BThM 2.


Lithium battery Fuzzy controlled electrom-compressor EMC controlled expansion valve Energy efficient 



surface area of the battery module, m2


frontal area of the car, m2


specific heat capacity of battery module


specific heat capacity of refrigerant


coefficient of aerodynamic resistance


acceleration due to gravity, m/s2


enthalpy, J/kg·K


battery discharge current, amp


mass of the vehicle, kg


mass flow rate of refrigerant, kg/s


pneumatic pressure of the tire, kPa


density of the battery module material, kg/m3


heat rate generated, Joule


internal resistance of the battery module, ohm


battery temperature, oC


inlet and outlet temperature of the evaporator,oC


ambient temperature, oC


travelling speed of the vehicle, m/s


motor rating voltage, volts


volume of the module, m3


specific heat of vapor


specific heat of liquid


mixture proportion, %


adhesion coefficient of the road


constant and opening restriction of expansion valve


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Albright, G. (2012). Making Lithium-ion Safe through Thermal Management. All Cell Technologies, Chicago, IL, 6(1)–6(10). Retrieved November 26, 2013. http:// Albright-Making Lithium-ion safe through thermal managementGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Hallaj, S., Kizilel, R., Lateef, A., Sabbah, R., Farid, M. and Selman, J. R. (2005). Passive thermal management using phase change material (PCM) for EV and HEV Liion batteries. Vehicle Power and Propulsion, IEEE Conf. Google Scholar
  3. Benger, R., Wenzl, H., Beck, H. P., Jiang, M. and Ohms, D. (2009). Electrochemical and thermal modeling of lithium-ion cells for use in HEV or EV application. The World Electric Vehicle J. 3, 3, 1–10.Google Scholar
  4. Bergveld, H. J. (2001). Battery Management Systems Design by Modelling. Ph. D. Dissertation. Universiteit Twente. Enshede, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  5. Chen, Y. and Evans, J. W. (1994). Thermal analysis of lithium polymer electrolyte batteries by a two dimensional model - Thermal behaviour and design optimization. Electrochimica Acta 39, 4, 517–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cengel, Y. A., Turner, R. H. and Smith, R. (2001). Fundamentals of Thermal-fluid Sciences. McGraw-Hill. New York, USA.Google Scholar
  7. Dominko, R., Bele, M., Gaberscek, M., Remskar, M., Hanzel, D., Pejovnik, S. and Jamnik, J. (2005). Impact of the carbon coating thickness on the electrochemical performance of LiFePO4/C composites. J. Electrochemical Society 152, 3, A607–A610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Duan, X. and Naterer, G. F. (2010). Heat transfer in phase change materials for thermal management of electric vehicle battery modules. Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer 53, 23-24, 5176–5182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gruhle, W. D. and Isermann, R. (1985). Modeling and control of a refrigerant evaporator. J. Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control 107, 4, 287–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Heckenberg, T. (2009). Li-ion Battery Cooling: More Than Just Another Cooling Task. Technical Press Day, 4–9.Google Scholar
  11. Li, M. and Wang, F. (2010). Thermal performance analysis of the lithium-ion batteries. The 11th Int. Conf. Parallel and Distributed Computing, Application and Technologies, 483–486.Google Scholar
  12. Li, X. and Pan, H. (2005). Study on the uniformity of storage batteries. Chinese Battery Industry 10, 5, 285–289.Google Scholar
  13. Onda, K., Ohshima, T., Nakayama, M., Fukuda, K. and Araki, T. (2006). Thermal behavior of small lithium-ion battery during rapid charge and discharge cycles. J. Power Sources 158, 1, 535–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pesaran, A. A. (2001). Battery thermal management in EVs and HEVs?: Issues and solutions. Advanced Automotive Battery Conf., Las Vegas.Google Scholar
  15. Pesaran, A. A., Burch, S. and Keyser, M. (1999). An approach for designing thermal management systems for electric and hybrid vehicle battery packs preprint. 4th Vehicle Therma.Google Scholar
  16. Rahman, A. and Yahya, A. (2013). Performance investigation of an advanced tracked prime mover on the low bearing soil. J. Terramechanics, 50, 233–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rahman, A., Mohiuddin, A. K. M. and Ihsan, S. I. (2011). A study on the development of traction control system of a golf car. Int. J. Electrical and Hybrid Vehicle 3, 1, 47–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rahman, A., Ahmed, H. and Hawlader, M. N. A. (2014). Nobel evaporative cooling battery thermal management system for EVs. Int. Conf. Engineering and Operational Management, Bali, Indonesia.Google Scholar
  19. Rahman, A., Hossain, A., Zahirul Alam, A. H. M. and Rashid, M. (2012). Fuzzy knowledge based model for prediction of traction force of an electric golf car. J. Terramechanics 49, 1, 13–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sabbah, R., Kizilel, R., Selman, J. R. and Al-Hallaj, S. (2008). Active (air-cooled) vs. passive (phase change material) thermal management of high power lithiumion packs: Limitation of temperature rise and uniformity of temperature distribution. J. Power Sources 182, 2, 630–638.Google Scholar
  21. Wang, H., Chunyu, D. U. and Wang, C. (2009). Study of low temperature performance of Li-ion battery. Battery Bimonthly 139, 14, 208–210.Google Scholar
  22. Wang, S. K. (2000). Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. McGraw-Hill. New York, USA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rahman Ataur
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohammed Nurul Amin Hawlader
    • 1
  • Helmi Khalid
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering, Mechanical EngineeringInternational Islamic University MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations