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International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 875–882 | Cite as

Two-phase evaporative battery thermal management technology for EVs/HEVs

  • Rahman AtaurEmail author
  • Mohammed Nurul Amin Hawlader
  • Helmi Khalid
Article

Abstract

Electric vehicle’s motor draws power from battery to meet its power demand in different road profiles. Battery high discharged currents are causes of warming battery’s cells. The temperature of 40 ºC and above reduces battery life span. The rationale of fuzzy controlled evaporative battery thermal management system (EC-BThMS) development from this study is to control the battery temperature in the range of 20 ~ 40 ºC both in charging/discharging modes. The proposed system has been developed with estimating the total cooling loads and thermal behavior of the battery cells. A fuzzy controlling system has been introduced with the EC-BThMS to control the electro-compressor and the expansion valve based on the response of battery temperature sensors.A battery pack of 8.6 kWh equipped EV has been operated with 60 km/h on 0 % gradient and 40 km/h on 5 % gradient in IIUM campus while 130 km/h on 0 % gradient and 50 km/h on 3.67 % gradient in Malaysia International Formula circuit to study the battery temperature profile and percentage of battery power saving. Comparison has been made on the performance of EC-BThMS with air cooling battery thermal management system (AC-BThMS) by using same vehicle. Result shows that EC-BThMS can save energy 17.69 % more than AC-BThM 1 and 23 % more than AC-BThM 2.

Keywords

Lithium battery Fuzzy controlled electrom-compressor EMC controlled expansion valve Energy efficient 

Nomenclature

As

surface area of the battery module, m2

Af

frontal area of the car, m2

cp

specific heat capacity of battery module

Cp.ref

specific heat capacity of refrigerant

CD

coefficient of aerodynamic resistance

g

acceleration due to gravity, m/s2

h

enthalpy, J/kg·K

Ib(d)

battery discharge current, amp

m

mass of the vehicle, kg

mref

mass flow rate of refrigerant, kg/s

Pt(p)

pneumatic pressure of the tire, kPa

ρ

density of the battery module material, kg/m3

qrate

heat rate generated, Joule

R

internal resistance of the battery module, ohm

Tbat

battery temperature, oC

TinandTout

inlet and outlet temperature of the evaporator,oC

Tα

ambient temperature, oC

v

travelling speed of the vehicle, m/s

Vm(vol)

motor rating voltage, volts

V

volume of the module, m3

vg

specific heat of vapor

vf

specific heat of liquid

x

mixture proportion, %

μr

adhesion coefficient of the road

kevandUev

constant and opening restriction of expansion valve

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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rahman Ataur
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohammed Nurul Amin Hawlader
    • 1
  • Helmi Khalid
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering, Mechanical EngineeringInternational Islamic University MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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