International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 759–768 | Cite as

Numerical study of the early injection parameters on wall wetting characteristics of an HCCI diesel engine using early injection strategy



Wall wetting in the early injection period has been proved to be unavoidable in the HCCI (Homogeneous charge compression ignition) diesel engine using early injection strategy, which directly affects in-cylinder fuel-air mixture formation. In this study, the effects of the early injection parameters (injection timing, injection angle and injection pressure) on wall wetting characteristics of an HCCI diesel engine using early injection strategy have been numerically investigated. The variations of maximum wall film mass, evaporated wall film mass and residual wall film mass have been summarized. The concept of MHI (Mixture Homogenous Index) is introduced to evaluate the homogeneity of fuel-air mixture in the wall wetting region. In additions, the effects of the early injection parameters on the HC (Hydrocarbon Compounds) and CO (Carbon Monoxide) emissions have also been discussed. Results showed that in order to decrease the HC and CO emission caused by wall wetting as low as possible, it was better to increase the injection pressure and to advance the injection timing. The most effective method was to narrow the injection angle, In addition, the impingement target should be considered for choosing the injection timing and injection angle, and the impingement target of the piston bowl lip was recommended due to the enhancement of the atomization and the higher surface temperature.


Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Early injection parameters Wall wetting characteristics Mixture formation Emissions 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Benajes, J., García-Oliver, J. M., Novella, R. and Kolodziej, C. (2012). Increased particle emissions from early fuel injection timing diesel low temperature combustion. Fuel, 94, 184–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berggren, C. and Magnusson, T. (2012). Reducing automotive emissions The potentials of combustion engine technologies and the power of policy. Energy Policy, 41, 636–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fang, T., Coverdill, R. E., Chia-fon, F. L. and White, R. A. (2008). Effects of injection angles on combustion processes using multiple injection strategies in an HSDI diesel engine. Fuel 87, 15, 3232–3239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Huang, H. and Su, W. (2005). A new reduced chemical kinetic model of N-Heptane combustion for HCCI engine simulations. Trans. Csice 23, 1, 42–51.Google Scholar
  5. Jia, M., Peng, Z., Xie, M. and Stobart, R. (2008). Evaluation of spray/wall interaction models under the conditions related to diesel HCCI engines. SAE Paper No. 2008-01-1632.Google Scholar
  6. Kim, H., Kim, Y. and Lee, K. (2008). A study of the characteristics of mixture formation and combustion in a PCCI engine using an early multiple injection strategy. Energy and Fuels 22, 3, 1542–1548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kiplimo, R., Tomita, E., Kawahara, N. and Yokobe, S. (2012). Effects of spray impingement, injection parameters, and EGR on the combustion and emission characteristics of a PCCI diesel engine. Applied Thermal Engineering, 37, 165–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kitasei, T., Yamada, J., Shoji, T., Shiino, S. and Mori, K. (2008). Influence of the different fuel spray wall impingement angles on smoke emission in a DI-diesel engine. SAE Paper No. 2008-01-1791.Google Scholar
  9. Kook, S., Park, S. and Bae, C. (2007). Influence of early fuel injection timings on premixing and combustion in a diesel engine. Energy and Fuels 22, 1, 331–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Liu, H., Ma, S., Zhang, Z., Zheng, Z. and Yao, M. (2015). Study of the control strategies on soot reduction under early-injection conditions on a diesel engine. Fuel, 139, 472–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mobasheri, R. and Peng, Z. (2012). A computational investigation into the effects of included spray angle on heavy-duty diesel engine operating parameters. SAE Paper No. 2012-01-1714.Google Scholar
  12. Musculus, M. P. B., Miles, P. C. and Pickett, L. M. (2013). Conceptual models for partially premixed lowtemperature diesel combustion. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 39, 2, 246–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Naber, J. and Reitz, R. (1988). Modeling engine spray/wall impingement, SAE Paper No. 880107.Google Scholar
  14. Noguchi, M., Tanaka, Y., Tanaka, T. and Takeuchi, Y. (1979). A study on gasoline engine combustion by observation of intermediate reactive products during combustion. SAE Paper No. 790840.Google Scholar
  15. Onishi, S., Jo, S. H., Shoda, K., Jo, P. D. and Kato, S. (1979). Active thermo-atmosphere combustion (ATAC) - A new combustion process for internal combustion engines. SAE Paper No. 790501.Google Scholar
  16. Park, S. H., Cha, J., Kim, H. J. and Lee, C. S. (2012). Effect of early injection strategy on spray atomization and emission reduction characteristics in bioethanol blended diesel fueled engine. Energy 39, 1, 375–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Park, S. H., Yoon, S. H. and Lee, C. S. (2013). HC and CO emissions reduction by early injection strategy in a bioethanol blended diesel-fueled engine with a narrow angle injection system. Applied Energy, 107, 81–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Yao, M., Zheng, Z. and Liu, H. (2009). Progress and recent trends in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 35, 5, 398–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Yu, H., Guo, Y., Li, D., Liang, X., Shu, G., Wang, Y., Wang, X. and Dong, L. (2015). Numerical investigation of the effect of spray cone angle on mixture formation and CO/ Soot emissions in an early injection HCCI diesel engine. SAE Paper No. 2015-01-1070.Google Scholar
  20. Zhang, Y., Jia, M., Liu, H., Xie, M., Wang, T. and Zhou, L. (2014). Development of a new spray/wall interaction model for diesel spray under PCCI-engine relevant conditions. Atomization and Sprays 24, 1, 41–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of EnginesTianjin UniversityTianjinChina

Personalised recommendations