Energy management and design optimization for a series-parallel PHEV city bus

  • Yuanchun Cai
  • Minggao Ouyang
  • Fuyuan Yang


Series-parallel PHEV city buses combine the advantages of series and parallel configurations and have been used in China. However, the design and energy management of series-parallel PHEV city buses based on Chinese driving conditions still need to be investigated. In this paper, an equivalent consumption minimization strategy is provided to optimize energy management for series-parallel PHEV city buses, and the process of the equivalent consumption minimization strategy for series-parallel is presented in this paper. Compared with the validated rule-based energy control strategy, ECMS shows a fuel economy improvement of 8.2 % in the CBCD (Chinese Bus Driving Cycle). Based on the optimal energy management, a design for a generator motor in the series-parallel configuration has been processed. The fuel consumption has been shown to decrease, with an increase in generator power, because the system with the higher generator power can work at a higher efficiency in the series mode and operate the engine in the high efficiency area in the parallel mode. Besides, in terms of costof- ownership for a PHEV bus for lifetime of 8 years, although the high generator power will lead to high purchase cost for series-parallel PHEV bus, a series-parallel PHEV city bus with a generator of 100 kW maximum power will still show small advantage in cost-of-ownership, based on current motor price and natural gas price.

Key words

PHEV city bus Series-parallel configuration Energy management Design Optimization 



electric power (kW)


generator power (kW)


traction motor power (kW)


efficiency of generator


efficiency of the traction motor


battery power (kW)


efficiency of the discharge


efficiency of the charge


initial SOC


rated capacity


battery current (A)


ICE instantaneous power (kW)


instantaneous fuel consumption (g)


equivalent fuel consumption (g)


low heating value of engine


vehicle mass (kg)


tractive force (N)


resistance force (N)


rolling resistance coefficient


road angle (%)


air density


aerodynamic drag coefficient


vehicle frontal area (A)


acceleration due to gravity


average efficiency of the electrical drive


average efficiency of battery


average efficiency of engine


cost-of-ownership over the lifetime (CNY)


vehicle purchase cost (CNY)


usage cost (CNY)


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Antti, L. (2014). Energy consumption and cost-benefit analysis of hybrid and electric city buses. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 38, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ao, G. Q., Qiang, J. X., Zhong, H., Yang, L. and Zhuo, B. (2008). Exploring the fuel economy potential of generator Hybrid electric vehicles through dynamic programming. Int. J. Automotive Technology 8, 6, 781–790.Google Scholar
  3. Chasse, A. and Sciarretta, A. (2011). Supervisory control of hybrid powertrains: An experimental benchmark of offline optimization and online energy management. Control Engineering Practice 19, 11, 1253–1265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chung, C. T. and Hung, Y. H. (2015). Energy improvement and performance evaluation of a novel full hybrid electric motorcycle with power split e-CVT. Energy Conversion and Management, 86, 216–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clark, N., Zhen, F., Wayne, W. and Lyons, D. (2008). Additional Transit Bus Life Cycle Cost Scenarios Based on Current and Future Fuel Prices. US DOT Federal Transit Administration.Google Scholar
  6. Delprat, S., Lauber, J., Guerra, T. M. and Rimaux, J. (2004). Control of a parallel hybrid powertrain: Optimal control. IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology 53, 3, 872–881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Geng, B., Mills, J. K. and Sun, D. (2014). Combined power management/design optimization for a fuel cell/battery plug-in hybrid electric vehicle using multi-objective particle swarm optimization. Int. J. Automotive Technology 15, 4, 645–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Guan, D., Hubacek, K., Weber, C. L., Peters, G. P. and Reiner, D. M. (2008). The drivers of Chinese CO2 emissions from 1980 to 2030. Global Environ. Change 18, 4, 626–634.Google Scholar
  9. Guzzella, L. and Sciarretta, A. (2005). Vehicle Propulsion Systems -Introduction to Modeling and Optimization. Springer-Verlag. Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  10. Hao, H., Ou, X., Du, J., Wang, H. and Ouyang, M. (2014). China’s electric vehicle subsidy scheme: Rationale and impacts. Energy Policy, 73, 722–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. He, X., Parten, M. and Maxwell, T. (2005). Energy management strategies for a hybrid electricvehicle. IEEE VPPC Conf., 536–540.Google Scholar
  12. He, Y., Chowdhury, M., Pisu, P. and Ma, Y. (2012). An energy optimization strategy for power-split drivetrain plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 22, 29–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Karabasoglu, O. and Michalek, J. (2013). Influence of driving pattern on lifecycle cost and emissions of hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle powertrains. Energy Policy, 60, 445–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Karbowski, D., Haliburton, C. and Rousseau, A. (2007). Impact of component size on PHEV energy consumption using global optimization. EVS23, Anaheim, California, USA.Google Scholar
  15. Katrašnik, T., Trenc, F. and Oprešnik, S. R. (2007). Analysis of energy conversion efficiency in parallel and series hybrid powertrains. IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology 56, 6, 3649–3659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kim, N., Cha, S. and Peng, H. (2011). Optimal control of hybrid electric vehicles based on Pontryagin's minimum principle. IEEE Trans. Control Systems Technology 19, 5, 1279–1287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Koponen, K. and Nylund, N. O. (2012). IEA technology network cooperation: Fuel and technology alternatives for buses: Overall energy efficiency and emissions. SAE Paper No. 2012-01-1981.Google Scholar
  18. Lukic, S. M., Wirasingha, S. G., Rodriguez, F., Cao, J. and Emadi, A. (2006). Power management of an ultracapacitor/ battery hybrid energy storage system in an HEV. Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conf., IEEE.Google Scholar
  19. Ma, C., Ko, S. Y., Jeong, K. Y. and Kim, H. S. (2013). Design methodology of component design environment for PHEV. Int. J. Automotive Technology 14, 5, 785–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Marano, V., Tulpule, P., Stockar, S. and Rizzoni, G. (2009). Comparative study of different control strategies for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. SAE Paper No. 2009-24-0071.Google Scholar
  21. Ouyang, M., Zhang, W. and Wang, E. (2015). Performance analysis of a novel coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain using a CNG engine and super-capacitors. Applied Energy, 157, 595–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Paganelli, G., Ercole, G., Brahma, A., Guezennec, Y. and Rizzoni, G. (2001). General supervisory control policy for the energy optimization of charge-sustaining hybrid electric vehicles. JSAE Review 22, 4, 511–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Park, J. and Park, J.-H. (2012). Development of equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy for hybrid electric vehicles. Int. J. Automotive Technology 13, 5, 835–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Park, J., Park, Y. and Park, J.-H. (2007). Real-time powertrain control strategy for series-parallel hybrid electric vehicles. SAE Paper No. 2007-01-3472.Google Scholar
  25. Park, J., Park, Y. and Park, J.-H. (2008). Optimal power distribution strategy for series-parallel hybrid electric vehicles. Proc. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: J. Automobile Engineering 222, 6, 989–1000.Google Scholar
  26. Patil, R., Adornato, B. and Filipi, Z. (2010). Design optimization of a series plug-in hybrid electric vehicle for real-world driving conditions. SAE Paper No. 2010-01-0840.Google Scholar
  27. Peng, J., He, H. and Xiong, R. (2015). Study on energy management strategies for series-parallel plug-in hybrid electric buses. Energy Procedia, 75, 1926–1931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pisu, P., Koprubasi, K. and Rizzoni, G. (2005). Energy management and drivability control problems for hybrid electric vehicles. 44th IEEE Conf. Decision and Control, 2005 and 2005 European Control Conf. CDC-ECC '05, 1824–1830.Google Scholar
  29. Pu, J. H., Yin, C. L. and Zhang, J. W. (2005). Fuzzy torque control strategy for hybrid electric vehicles. Int. J. Automotive Technology 6, 5, 529–536.Google Scholar
  30. Rizoulis, D., Burl, J. and Beard, J. (2001). Control strategies for a series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle. SAE Paper No. 2001-01-1354.Google Scholar
  31. Salmasi, F. R. (2007). Control strategies for hybrid electric vehicles: Evolution, classification, comparison, and future trends. IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology 56, 5, 2393–2404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sharma, R., Manzie, C., Bessede, M., Brear, M. J. and Crawford, R. H. (2012). Conventional, hybrid and electric vehicles for Australian driving conditions–Part 1: Technical and financial analysis. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 25, 238–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shiau, C. S. N., Kaushal, N., Hendrickson, C. T. and Peterson, S. B. (2011). Optimal plug-in hybrid electric vehicle design and allocation for minimum life cycle cost, petroleum consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. J. Mechanical Design 132, 9, 1–11.Google Scholar
  34. Silva, C., Ross, M. and Farias, T. (2009). Evaluation of energy consumption, emission and cost of plug-in hybrid vehicles. Energy Conversion and Management 50, 7, 1635–1643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Suh, B., Chang, Y. H., Han, S. B. and Chung, Y. J. (2012). Simulation of a powertrain system for the diesel hybrid electric bus. Int. J. Automotive Technology 13, 5, 701–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tulpule, P., Marano, V. and Rizzoni, G. (2009). Effects of different PHEV control strategies on vehicle performance. Proc. American Control Conf. (ACC’ 09), 3950–3955.Google Scholar
  37. van Vliet, O. P. R., Kruithof, T., Turkenburg, W. C. and Faaij, A. P. C. (2010). Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars. J. Power Sources 195, 19, 6570–6585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wang, B. H. and Luo, Y. G. (2011). Application study on a control strategy for a hybrid electric public bus. Int. J. Automotive Technology 12, 1, 141–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wang, L., Zhang, Y., Yin, C. L., Zhang, H. and Wang, C. (2012). Hardware-in-the-loop simulation for the design and verification of the control system of a series–parallel hybrid electric city-bus. Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, 25, 148–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Williamson, S. S., Wirasingha, S. G. and Emadi, A. (2006). Comparative investigation of series and parallel hybrid electric drive trains for heavy-duty transit bus applications. IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conf., Windsor, UK.Google Scholar
  41. Xiong, W., Zhang, Y. and Yin, C. (2009). Optimal energy management for a series-parallel hybrid electric bus. Energy Conversion and Management, 50, 1730–1738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Xu, L., Yang, F., Li, J., Ouyang, M. and Hua, J. (2012). Real time optimal energy management strategy targeting at minimizing daily operation cost for a plug-in fuel cell city bus. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 37, 20, 15380–15392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yin, X., Chen, W., Eom, J., Clarke, L. E., Kim, S. H., Patel, P. L., Yu, S. and Kyle, G. P. (2015). China's transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions from a global perspective. Energy Policy, 82, 233–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zheng, C. H., Xu, G. Q., Cha, S. W. and Liang, Q. (2014). Numerical comparison of ECMS and PMP-based optimal control strategy in hybrid vehicles. Int. J. Automotive Technology 15, 7, 1189–1196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zheng, C., Kim, N. and Cha, S. (2012). Optimal control in the power management of fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 37, 1, 655–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhong, H., Wang, F., Ao, G. Q. and Qiang, J. X. (2008). An optimal torque distribution strategy for an interated starter-generator parallel hyrid electric vehicle based on fuzzy logic control. Proc. Institution Mechanical Engineers, Part D: J. Automobile Engineering 222, 1, 79–92.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and EnergyTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations