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Energy management and design optimization for a series-parallel PHEV city bus

  • Yuanchun Cai
  • Minggao Ouyang
  • Fuyuan Yang
Article

Abstract

Series-parallel PHEV city buses combine the advantages of series and parallel configurations and have been used in China. However, the design and energy management of series-parallel PHEV city buses based on Chinese driving conditions still need to be investigated. In this paper, an equivalent consumption minimization strategy is provided to optimize energy management for series-parallel PHEV city buses, and the process of the equivalent consumption minimization strategy for series-parallel is presented in this paper. Compared with the validated rule-based energy control strategy, ECMS shows a fuel economy improvement of 8.2 % in the CBCD (Chinese Bus Driving Cycle). Based on the optimal energy management, a design for a generator motor in the series-parallel configuration has been processed. The fuel consumption has been shown to decrease, with an increase in generator power, because the system with the higher generator power can work at a higher efficiency in the series mode and operate the engine in the high efficiency area in the parallel mode. Besides, in terms of costof- ownership for a PHEV bus for lifetime of 8 years, although the high generator power will lead to high purchase cost for series-parallel PHEV bus, a series-parallel PHEV city bus with a generator of 100 kW maximum power will still show small advantage in cost-of-ownership, based on current motor price and natural gas price.

Key words

PHEV city bus Series-parallel configuration Energy management Design Optimization 

Nomenclature

Pele

electric power (kW)

PGen

generator power (kW)

PTra

traction motor power (kW)

ηGen

efficiency of generator

ηTra

efficiency of the traction motor

Pbat

battery power (kW)

ηdis

efficiency of the discharge

ηchg

efficiency of the charge

SOCO

initial SOC

Cb

rated capacity

Ib

battery current (A)

PICE(t)

ICE instantaneous power (kW)

ICE

instantaneous fuel consumption (g)

EMeq

equivalent fuel consumption (g)

HLHV

low heating value of engine

mv

vehicle mass (kg)

Ft

tractive force (N)

Fr

resistance force (N)

Cr

rolling resistance coefficient

γ

road angle (%)

ρ

air density

Cd

aerodynamic drag coefficient

Av

vehicle frontal area (A)

g

acceleration due to gravity

ηEM

average efficiency of the electrical drive

ηbat

average efficiency of battery

ηICE

average efficiency of engine

Ptotal

cost-of-ownership over the lifetime (CNY)

PPur

vehicle purchase cost (CNY)

PUsage

usage cost (CNY)

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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and EnergyTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

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