Advertisement

International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 17, Issue 5, pp 865–872 | Cite as

Effect of regenerative braking energy on battery current balance in a parallel hybrid gasoline-electric vehicle under FTP-75 driving mode

  • J. S. Kim
  • S. M. Kim
  • J. H. Jeong
  • S. C. Jeong
  • J. W. Lee
Article

Abstract

In recent years, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) has been considered a successful technology. Especially, in case of a full HEV, the motor can drive the vehicle by itself at low velocity or assist the engine at high load. To improve the hybrid electric vehicle’s efficiency, a regenerative braking system is also applied to recover from kinetic energy. In this study, an experimental control apparatus was set up with a parallel hybrid electric vehicle mounted on a chassis dynamometer to measure ECU (engine control unit) and MCU (motor control unit) signals, including the current and state of charge in the battery. In order to analyze regenerative braking characteristics, user define braking driving cycle was introduced and carried out using different initial velocities and braking times. The FTP 75 driving cycle was then adapted under different initial SOC (state of charge) levels. The experiment data was analyzed in accordance with the vehicle velocity, battery current, instant SOC level, motor RPM, engine RPM, and then vehicle driving mode was decided. In case of braking driving cycle, it was observed that SOC were increased up to 1.5 % when the braking time and the velocidy were 6 second and 60 km/h, respectively. In addition, using the FTP 75 driving cycle, mode 1 was most frequently operated at SOC 65 conditions in phase 1. In phase 2, due to frequent stop-go hills, percentage of mode 1 was increase by 22 %. Eventually, despite of identity, it was shown that the characteristics of phase 3 differed from phase 1 due to the evanishment of the effects of initial SOCs.

Key words

Hybrid electric vehicle Chassis dynamometer FTP 75 driving mode Braking driving mode Regenerative brake Battery current balance 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albrichsfeld, C. and Kamer, J. (2009). Brake system for hybrid and electric vehicles. SAE Paper No. 2009-01-1217. Google Scholar
  2. Bucher, J., Bradley, T., Lohse-busch, H. and Rase, E. (2014). Analyzing the energy consumption variation during chassis dynamometer testing of conventional, hybrid electric, and battery electric vehicles. SAE Paper No. 2014-01-1805. Google Scholar
  3. Cluett, I. (2007). Application of low-cost belt starter generator hybrid technology in emerging markets. SAE Paper No. 2007-26-059. Google Scholar
  4. Costa, C. H., Cavalcante, T. and Kronemberger, S. (2005). Methodology for emissions measurement–Evaluation of the battery charge level influence on hybrid vehicle emissions. SAE Paper No. 2005-01-2148. Google Scholar
  5. Gao, B., Svancara, K., Walker, A., Kok, D., Conen, M. and Kees, D. (2009). Development of a BISG micro hybrid system. SAE Paper No. 2009-10-1330. Google Scholar
  6. Han, J., Park, Y. and Park, Y. (2014). Cooperative regenerative braking control for front-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicle based on adaptive regenerative brake torque optimization using under-steer index. Int. J. Automotive Technology 15, 6, 989–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Heish, F. C., Chou, T. W., Chen, Y. C., Huang, Y. D., Len, Y. W. and Peng, Y. W. (2014). Development of power management strategy using dynamic programming for BSG mild HEV. SAE Paper No. 2014-01-1811. Google Scholar
  8. Kaul, S., Gupta, J., Sharma, S. and Kumar, M. (2013). Scope of regenerative (magnetic) braking in the production of electricity in automobiles. SAE Paper No. 2013-01-2543. Google Scholar
  9. Kim, J., Sim, H. and Oh, J. (2012). The flexible EV/HEV and SOC band control corresponding to driving mode, drivier’s driving style and environmental circumstances. SAE Paper No. 2012-01-1016. Google Scholar
  10. Ko, J. W., Ko, S. Y., Kim, I. S., Hyun, D. Y. and Kim, H. S. (2014). Co-operative control for regenerative braking and friction braking to increase energy recovery without wheel lock. Int. J. Automotive Technology 15, 2, 253–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Meyer, M., Neslon, D. and Lohse-busch, H. (2012). Battery charge balcance and correction issues in hybrid electric vehicles for individual phases of certification dynamometer drving cycles as used in EPA fuel economy label calculations. SAE Paper No. 2012-01-1006.Google Scholar
  12. Okui, N., Kawai, T., Niikuni, T., Suzuki, M., Takahata, H. and Maesoma, K. (2013). Development of evalution system for exhaust gas and fuel economy of nexgeneration hybrid electric vehicles. SAE Paper No. 2013-01-2602.Google Scholar
  13. Ueda, T. and Ohara, A. (2004). Trends of future powertrain development and the evolution of power-train control systems. SAE Paper No. 2004-21-0063.Google Scholar
  14. Vasudecam, A. M. and Vora, K. C. (2013). Developments in hybrid electiric vehicle technology in a national perspective. SAE Paper No. 2013-26-0069.Google Scholar
  15. Zheng, K., Yao, Y., Shen, T., Hikiri, K. and Sasaki, M. (2008). Modeling and control of regenerative braking system in heavy duty hybrid electrical vehicles. SAE Paper No. 2008-01-1569.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. S. Kim
    • 1
  • S. M. Kim
    • 1
  • J. H. Jeong
    • 1
  • S. C. Jeong
    • 1
  • J. W. Lee
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate SchoolSoongsil UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSoongsil UniversitySeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations