Advertisement

Experimental investigations on continuous regenerative anti-lock braking system of full electric vehicle

  • D. Savitski
  • V. Ivanov
  • B. Shyrokau
  • T. Pütz
  • J. De Smet
  • J. Theunissen
Article

Abstract

Functions of anti-lock braking for full electric vehicles (EV) with individually controlled wheel drive can be realized through conventional brake system actuating friction brakes and regenerative brake system actuating electric motors. To analyze advantages and limitations of both variants of anti-lock braking systems (ABS), the presented study introduces results of experimental investigations obtained from proving ground tests of all-wheel drive EV. The brake performance is assessed for three different configurations: hydraulic ABS; regenerative ABS only on the front axle; blended hydraulic and regenerative ABS on the front axle and hydraulic ABS on the rear axle. The hydraulic ABS is based on a rule-based controller, and the continuous regenerative ABS uses the gain-scheduled proportional-integral direct slip control with feedforward and feedback control parts. The results of tests on low-friction road surface demonstrated that all the ABS configurations guarantee considerable reduction of the brake distance compared to the vehicle without ABS. In addition, braking manoeuvres with the regenerative ABS are characterized by accurate tracking of the reference wheel slip that results in less oscillatory time profile of the vehicle deceleration and, as consequence, in better driving comfort. The results of the presented experimental investigations can be used in the process of selection of ABS architecture for upcoming generations of full electric vehicles with individual wheel drive.

Key words

Anti-lock braking system Electric vehicle Continuous ABS Rule-based ABS 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akaho, D., Nakatsu, M., Katsuyama, E., Takakuwa, K. and Yoshizue, E. (2010). Development of vehicle dynamics control system for in-wheel-motor vehicle. Proc. JSAE Annual Cong. (Spring), Yokohama, Japan.Google Scholar
  2. Akiba, T., Shirato, R., Fujita, T. and Tamura, J. (2007). A study of novel traction control method for electric motor driven vehicle. Proc. PCC7 Power Conversion Conf., Nagoya, Japan.Google Scholar
  3. Bera, T. K., Bhattacharya, K. and Samantaray, A. K. (2012). Bond graph model-based evaluation of a sliding mode controller for a combined regenerative and antilock braking system. Proc. IMechE, Part I: J. Systems and Control Engineering 226, 8, 1060–1076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bottiglione, F., Sorniotti, A. and Shead, L. (2012). The effect of half-shaft torsion dynamics on the performance of a traction control system for electric vehicles. Proc. IMechE, Part D: J. Automobile Engineering 226, 9, 1145–1159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burckhardt, M. (1993). Fahrwerktechnik: Radschlupf- Regelsysteme [Chassis Engineering: Wheel Slip Control Systems]. Vogel, Würzburg.Google Scholar
  6. Dadashnialehi, A., Bab-Hadiashar, A., Zhenwei, C. and Kapoor, A. (2014). Intelligent sensorless ABS for inwheel electric vehicles. IEEE Trans. Industrial Electronics 61, 4, 1957–1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. De Castro, R., Araújo, R. E., Tanelli, M., Savaresi, S. M. and D. Freitas. (2012). Torque blending and wheel slip control in EVs with in-wheel motors. Vehicle System Dynamics: Int. J. Vehicle Mechanics and Mobility 50, 1, 71–94.Google Scholar
  8. De Novellis, L., Sorniotti, A. and Gruber, P. (2014). Design and comparison of the handling performance of different electric vehicle layouts. Proc. IMechE, Part D: J. Automobile Engineering 228, 2, 218–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dhaens, M. (2011). Recuperative braking in electric vehicles: Flemish and European initiatives. Proc. IQPC 4th Int. Cong. Electric Vehicles, Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  10. Doumiati, M., Charara, A., Victorino, A. and Lechner, D. (2012). Vehicle Dynamics Estimation Using Kalman Filtering. John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Freitag, G., Gerlich, M., Bergmann, D., Pais, G. and Fischer, B. (2012). Replacement of the friction brake by a wheel hub drive. Proc. The 3rd Int. Munich Chassis Symp. “Chassi.Tech Plus”, Munich, Germany.Google Scholar
  12. Freitag, G., Klopzig, M., Schleicher, K., Wilke, M. and Schramm, M. (2013). High-performance and highly efficient electric wheel hub drive in automotive design. Proc. The 3rd Int. Electric Drives Production Conf., Nuremberg, Germany.Google Scholar
  13. Fujimoto, H., Fujii, K. and Takahashi, N. (2007). Vehicle stability control of electric vehicle with slip-ratio and cornering stiffness estimation. Proc. IEEE/ASME Int. Conf. Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, Zurich, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  14. Geamanu, M. S., Mounier, H., Niculescu, S., Cela, A. and LeSolliec, G. (2012). Longitudinal control for an allelectric vehicle. Proc. IEEE Int. Electric Vehicle Conf., Greenville, South Carolina, USA.Google Scholar
  15. Ivanov, V., Savitski, D. and Shyrokau, B. (2014)a). A survey of traction control and anti-lock braking systems of full electric vehicles. IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology 64, 9, 3878–3896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ivanov, V., Shyrokau, B., Savitski, D., Orus, J., Meneses, R., Rodriguez-Fortun, J. M., Theunissen, J. and Janssen, K. (2014)b). Design and testing of ABS for electric vehicles with individually controlled on-board motor drives. SAE Int. J. Passenger Cars Mechanical Systems 7, 2, 902–913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jalali, K., Uchida, T., McPhee, J. and Lambert, S. (2012). Development of a fuzzy slip control system for electric vehicles with in-wheel motors. SAE Int. J. Alt. Power 1, 1, 46–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Khatun, P., Bingham, C. M., Schofield, N. and Mellor, P. H. (2003). Application of fuzzy control algorithms for electric vehicle antilock braking/traction control systems. IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology 52, 5, 1356–1364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kim, D., Shin, K., Kim, Y. and Cheon, J. (2010). Integrated design of in-wheel motor system on rear wheels for small electric vehicle. World Electric Vehicle J., 4, 597–602.Google Scholar
  20. Kim, J. and Kim, H. (2007). Electric vehicle yaw rate control using independent in-wheel motor. Proc. PCC07 Power Conversion Conf., Nagoya, Japan.Google Scholar
  21. Kö;nig, L., Böker, R. and Folke, R. (2010). Torque vectoring for electric vehicles A new approach to designing lateral dynamics. Proc. The 1st Int. Munich Chassis Symp. “Chassis. Tech Plus”, Munich, Germany.Google Scholar
  22. Liu, W., He, H. and Peng, J. (2013). Driving control research for longitudinal dynamics of electric vehicles with independently driven front and rear wheels. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 408965, 1–17.Google Scholar
  23. Liu, X., Li, L., Hori, Y., Akiba, T. and Shirato, R. (2005). Optimal traction control for EV utilizing fast torque response of electric motor. Proc. The 31st Annual Conf. IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.Google Scholar
  24. Murata, S. (2012). Innovation by in-wheel-motor drive unit. Vehicle System Dynamics: Int. J. Vehicle Mechanics and Mobility 50, 6, 807–830.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  25. Mutoh, N. (2012). Driving and braking torque distribution methods for front- and rear-wheel-independent drivetype electric vehicles on roads with low friction coefficient. IEEE Trans. Industrial Electronics 59, 10, 3919–3933.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Okayama, K., Nakano, H., Kinugawa, J., Hirata, Y. and Kosuge, K. (2013). Motion control of a four-wheeldriven electric vehicle with a large side slip angle. Proc. JSAE Annual Cong. (Spring), Yokohama, Japan.Google Scholar
  27. Sakamoto, T., Hirukawa, K. and Ohmae, T. (2006). Cooperative control of full electric braking system with independently driven four wheels. Proc. The 9th IEEE Int. Workshop on Advanced Motion Control, Istanbul, Turkey.Google Scholar
  28. Savitski, D., Ivanov, V., Heidrich, L., Augsburg, K. and Pütz, T. (2013). Experimental investigation of braking dynamics of electric vehicle. Proc. EuroBrake Conf., Dresden, Germany.Google Scholar
  29. Song, C., Wang, J. and Jin, L. (2011). Study on the composite ABS control of vehicles with four electric wheels. J. Computers 6, 3, 618–626.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yin, G. and Jin, X. (2013). Cooperative control of regenerative braking and antilock braking for a hybrid electric vehicle. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 890427, 1–9.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Savitski
    • 1
  • V. Ivanov
    • 1
  • B. Shyrokau
    • 2
  • T. Pütz
    • 3
  • J. De Smet
    • 4
  • J. Theunissen
    • 4
  1. 1.Automotive Engineering Group, Department of Mechanical EngineeringIlmenau University of TechnologyIlmenauGermany
  2. 2.Department of Precision and Microsystems EngineeringDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Lucas Varity GmbH, ZF TRWKoblenzGermany
  4. 4.Flanders MakeLommelBelgium

Personalised recommendations