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Optimal design of three-planetary-gear power-split hybrid powertrains

  • W. Zhuang
  • X. Zhang
  • D. Zhao
  • H. Peng
  • L. Wang
Article

Abstract

Many of today’s power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) utilize planetary gears (PGs) to connect the powertrain elements together. Recent power-split HEVs tend to use two PGs and some of them have multiple modes to achieve better fuel economy and driving performance. Looking to the future, hybrid powertrain technologies must be enhanced to design hybrid light trucks. For light trucks, the need for multi-mode and more PGs is stronger, to achieve the required performance. To systematically explore all the possible designs of multi-mode HEVs with three PGs, an efficient searching and optimization methodology is proposed. All possible clutch topology and modes for one existing configuration that uses three PGs were exhaustively searched. The launching performance is first used to screen out designs that fail to satisfy the required launching performance. A near-optimal and computationally efficient energy management strategy was then employed to identify designs that achieve good fuel economy. The proposed design process successfully identify 8 designs that achieve better launching performance and better fuel economy, while using fewer number of clutches than the benchmark and a patented design.

Key words

Hybrid electric vehicle Configuration optimization Optimal design Automated modeling 

Nomenclature

A0

characteristic matrix of one specific configuration

A*

characteristic matrix of one specific mode

DP

dynamic programming

DoF

degree of freedom

ECVT

electronic continuous variable transmission

FUDS

EPA federal urban driving schedule

ffuel

fuel consumption of each step

HEV

hybrid electric vehicle

HWFET

EPA highway fuel economy driving schedule

J

cost function

M

transform matrix

Mall

set of all modes

Mbackward

set of the engine-on backward driving mode

MECVT

set of the ECVT mode

Modeshift

cost penalty for the mode shift

MG

motor / generator

Nmode

number of modes

Ndesign

number of designs

Nclutch

number of possible clutches

Nconf

number of configurations

Np

number of planetary gears

P

transform matrix

PEARS

power-weighted efficiency analysis for rapid sizing

PG

planetary gear

PEVloss

power loss of the EV mode

PEVin

total battery output power of the EV mode

Pe_1

engine power flowing through the generator to the battery

Pe_2

engine power flowing through the generator to the motor

Pe_3

engine power directly flowing to the vehicle

Pbatt

battery power which powers the motor

Pfuel

Energy rate of the fuel injected

STC

speed and torque cell

SOCdesired

desired final state of charge of the battery

SOCf

actual final state of charge of the battery

T

torque, N

US06

EPA high acceleration driving schedule

δe_max

highest efficiency of the engine

δMG2_max

highest efficiency of the MG2

δ

efficiency

δMG1_max

highest efficiency of the MG1

ω

rotational speed, rad/s

α

weighing factor

β

weighing factor

μ

a flag that indicates whether the battery assist is on

Subscripts

EV

electric drive mode

hybrid

hybrid driving mode

e

internal combustion engine

MG1

motor / generator 1

MG2

motor / generator 2

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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Zhuang
    • 1
    • 2
  • X. Zhang
    • 2
  • D. Zhao
    • 2
  • H. Peng
    • 2
  • L. Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringNanjing University of Science & TechnologyNanjingChina
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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