Advertisement

International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 13–34 | Cite as

Modeling and validation of turbocharged diesel engine airpath and combustion systems

  • B. Unver
  • Y. Koyuncuoglu
  • M. GokasanEmail author
  • S. Bogosyan
Article

Abstract

The ultimate aim of this study is the development of an engine modeling approach that would facilitate the design of model-based control techniques for diesel engines. This will allow for the development of more generalized, modular control strategies for different engine types and sizes as opposed to the commonly practiced map-based engine control strategies that depend on maps and feedforward control and require lengthy modifications every time a change is made. Also, most engine modeling studies focus on either airpath or combustion systems, treating these models and their validation individually, and not as an integrated system as is actually the case. To address the need for more realistic models suitable for model-based control design, this study develops a combined airpath and combustion model for the engine, using analytical models wherever possible and derives a model with appropriate control inputs and outputs that could be used in a control scheme. The inclusion of the actuator dynamics of the Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), variable geometry turbine (VGT), and Throttle (THR) valves in the airpath model and the consideration of nonlinearities in the combustion model allow for the development of a more thorough engine model, as well as the validation of subsystems and the whole integrated engine model using a complete World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC). This test cycle finds limited use due to its challenging transients, and yet, is the demanded test cycle for emission regulations nowadays. These are unique aspects of this modeling study, the results of which indicate that the developed engine model could be used in control design and hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) based engine control prototyping.

Key Words

Control based diesel engine model Airpath model Combustion model Parameter estimation Model validation EGR valve VGT valve THR valve WHTC 

Nomenclature/Subscripts

OFR

stoichiometric ratio between oxygen and fuel

Amax

maximum effective area of EGR valve

Apipe

effective pipe area causing temperature drop

cp

air constant pressure heat capacity

cv

constant volume air heat capacity

H

pressure drop coefficients

htot

total heat transfer coefficient

J

inertia

K

ratio of heat capacities at constant volume and pressure

kJt

turbocharger friction coefficient

ncyl

number of engine cylinders

ne

engine speed

P

mechanical power

p

pressure

qHV

fuel heating value

qin

specific heat energy

R

ideal gas constant

rc

cylinder compression ratio

Rt

blade radius

T

temperature

u

model inputs as valve position, injection timings & quantities

uinj_qty

total injected fuel quantity

V

volume

W

mass flow rate

xcv

consumed fuel ratio during constant volume combustion

XO

oxygen concentration

xp

pressure ratio between after and before combustion gases

xr

cylinder remaining gas ratio

xv

volume ratio of the after and before combustion gases

η

efficiency

λO

oxygen fuel ratio in the cylinders

Π

pressure ratio

ω

rotational speed

ψ

energy transfer coefficient

Ф

volumetric flow coefficient

egr(EGR)

exhaust gas recirculation valve

thr(THR)

throttle valve

opt

optimum

eg

exhaust gas

T

turbine

C

compressor

em

exhaust manifold

im

intake manifold

ic

intercooler

cool

coolant

egrc

EGR cooler

e

engine

amb

ambient

d

displacement

ei

engine cylinder in

eo

engine cylinder out

f

fuel

m

mechanical

max

maximum

tm

thermodynamic

vol

volumetric

crit

critical

rail

rail

soi

start of injection

vgt

variable geometry turbine

inj

injection

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahmed, F. (2013). Modeling, Simulation and Control of the Air-path of an Internal Combustion Engine. Ph. D. Dissertation. Universite de Technologie de Belfort-Montbeliard. Belfort.Google Scholar
  2. Amsden, A., Ramshaw, J., O’Rourke, P. and Dukowicz, J. (1985). Kiva: A Computer Program for Two- and Three- Dimensional Fluid Flows with Chemical Reactions and Fuel Sprays. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Report No. LA-10245-MS.Google Scholar
  3. Arsie, I., Di Genova, F., Pianese, C., Sorrentino, M., Rizzo, G., Caraceni, A., Cioffi, P. and Flauti, G. (2004). Development and identification of phenomenological models for combustion and emissions of common-rail multi-jet diesel engines. SAE Paper No. 2004-01-1877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arsie, I., Pianese, C. and Sorrentino, M. (2007). Effects of control parameters on performance and emissions of HSDI diesel engines: Investigation via two zone modelling. Oil & Gas Science and Technology 62, 4, 457–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arsie, I., Di Leo, R., Pianese, C. and De Cesare, M. (2012). Combustion noise and pollutants prediction for injection pattern and EGR tuning in an automotive common-rail diesel engine. IFAC Workshop on Engine and Powertrain Control, Simulation and Modeling (E-COSM’12), Rueil-Malmaison, France.Google Scholar
  6. Aspriona, J., Chinellatob, O. and Guzzella, L. (2013). A fast and accurate physics-based model for the NOx emissions of Diesel engines. Applied Energy, 103, 221–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benz, M. (2010). Model-based Optimal Emission Control of Diesel Engines. Ph. D. Dissertation. Retrieved from http://e-collectionlibraryethzch/eserv/eth:1197/eth- 1197-02pdfGoogle Scholar
  8. Benz, M., Onder, C. H. and Guzzella, L. (2010). Engine emission modeling using a mixed physics and regression approach. Trans. ASME, J. Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 132, 4, 042803.1–11.Google Scholar
  9. Bonnet, B. (2007). Matching of Internal Combustion Engine Characteristics for Continuously Variable Transmissions. Ph. D. Dissertation. Cranfield University. Bedfordshire.Google Scholar
  10. Brahma, I., Sharp, M. and Frazier, T. (2009). Empirical modeling of transient emissions and transient response for transient optimization. SAE Int. J. Engines 2, 1, 1433–1443.Google Scholar
  11. Eriksson, L., Wahlström, J. and Klein, M. (2009). Physical Modeling of Turbocharged Engines and Parameter Identification, Automotive Model Predictive Control: Models, Methods and Applications. Springer. Berlin. 59–79.Google Scholar
  12. Gambarotta, A., Lucchetti, G. and Vaja, I. (2011). Realtime modelling of transient operation of turbocharged diesel engines. Proc. I.Mech.E., Part D: J. Automobile Engineering, 225, 0954–4070.Google Scholar
  13. Guzzella, L. and Onder, C. H. (2010). Introduction to Modeling and Control of Internal Combustion Engine Systems. Springer-Verlag. Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Heywood, J. (1988). Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Hirsch, M., Oppenauer, K. and del Re, L. (2010). Dynamic Engine Emission Models, Automotive Model Predictive Control-Models, Methods and Applications, LNCIS 402. Springer-Verlag. 402, 73–87.Google Scholar
  16. Hirsch, M., Alberer, D. and del Re, L. (2008). Grey-box control oriented emissions models. Int. Federation of Automatic Control Proc. 17th World Cong., Seoul, Korea, 8514–8519.Google Scholar
  17. Hiroyasu, H. (1985). Diesel engine combustion and its modeling. Proc. COMODIA Symp. Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Reciprocating Engines, Tokyo, Japan, 53–75.Google Scholar
  18. Johnson, T. (2009). Review of diesel emissions and control. Int. J. Engine Research 10, 5, 275–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jung, M. (2003). Mean-value Modelling and Robust Control of the Airpath of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine. Ph. D. Dissertation. University of Cambridge. Cambridge.Google Scholar
  20. Kirchen, P. and Boulouchos, K. (2009). Development and validation of a phenomenological mean value soot model for common-rail diesel engines. SAE 2009 World Cong. & Exhibition, Detroit, Michigan, USA.Google Scholar
  21. Kirchen, P., Obrecht, P. and Boulouchos, K. (2009). Soot emission measurements and validation of a mean value soot model for common-rail diesel engines during transient operation. SAE Int. J. Engines, 2, 1663–1678.Google Scholar
  22. Lee, B., Jung, D., Kim, Y. W. and Nieuwstadt, M. (2013). Thermodynamics-based mean value model for diesel. Trans. ASME, J. Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 135, 1–9.Google Scholar
  23. Maiboom, A., Tauzia, X. and Hétet, J. F. (2008). Experimental study of various effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion and emissions of an automotive direct injection diesel engine. Energy 33, 1, 22–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Patil, K., Molla, S. and Schulze, T. (2012). Hybrid vehicle model development using ASM-AMESim-simscape cosimulation for real-time HIL applications. SAE Paper No. 2012-01-0932.Google Scholar
  25. Skogtjarn, P. (2002). Modelling of the Exhaust Gas Temperature for Diesel Engines. LiTH-ISY-EX-3379, M. S. Thesis. Linkoping University. Linkoping.Google Scholar
  26. Stadlbauer, S., Alberer, D., Hirsch, M., Formentin, S. and del Re, L. (2012). Evaluation of virtual NOx sensor models for off road heavy duty diesel engines. SAE Int. J. Commercial Vehicles 5, 1, 128–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Stamati, I., Telen, D., Logist, F., Van Derlinden, E., Hirsch, M., Passenbrunner, T. and Van Impe, J. (2012). Optimal experiment design for calibrating an airpath model of a diesel engine. SNE Simulation Notes Europe 22, 3-4, 121–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Unver, B. (2013). Modeling Diesel Engines, Development and Application of Model Based Airpath and Emission Controllers. Ph. D. Dissertation. Istanbul Technical University. Istanbul.Google Scholar
  29. Wahlstrom, J. and Eriksson, L. (2011). Modelling diesel engines with a variable-geometry turbocharger and exhaust gas recirculation by optimization of model parameters for capturing non-linear system dynamics. Proc. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D, J. Automobile Engineering 225, 7, 960–986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wahlström, J. (2009). Control of EGR and VGT for Emission Control and Pumping Work Minimization in Diesel Engines. Ph. D. Dissertation. Linkopings University. Linkopings.Google Scholar
  31. Wahlstrom, J. and Eriksson, L. (2010). Modeling of a Diesel Engine with Intake Throttle, VGT, and EGR. Linkoping University. Linkoping. Report: LiTH-ISY-R-2976.Google Scholar
  32. Wu, H., Wang, X., Winsor, R. and Baumgard, K. (2011). Mean value engine modeling for a diesel engine with GT-power 1D detail model. SAE Paper No. 2011-01-1294, 1–19.Google Scholar
  33. Zhang, J., Gao, S. and Jiang, F. (2007). A diesel engine real time NOx emission simulation system based on RTW and VxWorks. SAE Paper No. 2007-01-0025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhao, H. (editor) (2010). Advanced Direct Injection Combustion Engine Techniologies and Development: Volume 2: Diesel Engines. Woodhead Publishing Ltd. Cambridge. UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zweigel, R., Albin, T., Hesseler, F.-J., Jochim, B., Pitsch, H. and Abel, D. (2013). Greybox modeling of the diesel combustion by use of the scalar dissipation rate. European Control Conf. (ECC), 3961–3966.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Unver
    • 1
  • Y. Koyuncuoglu
    • 1
  • M. Gokasan
    • 2
    Email author
  • S. Bogosyan
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Powertrain Calibration & Control, Ford Otomotiv Sanayi A.S.Sancaktepe Research and Development CenerSancaktepe, stanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Control & Automation Engineering Electrical-Electronics Engineering FacultyIstanbul Technical UniversityMaslak IstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Electrical & Computer EngineeringCollege of Engineering and Mines University of Alaska FairbanksFairbanksUSA

Personalised recommendations