Examination of PN emissions and size distributions of a hybrid city bus under real world urban driving conditions

  • S. SoyluEmail author


Engine load-speed frequency map of a hybrid city bus, which operates on the routes of Sakarya Municipality, was compared with that of European Transient Cycle (ETC) and World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC), which are the certification test cycles. It was observed that the hybrid city bus engine operates mostly at three main regions, which are idling (30% load and 750 rpm), motoring (0% load and 1200 rpm) and high load (80% load and 1800 rpm) conditions under real world urban driving conditions. However, engine load-speed frequency maps of the certification test cycles are significantly different and cannot represent the real world urban driving conditions of the hybrid city bus. Therefore, the Particle Number (PN) emissions of the hybrid city bus were investigated under real world urban driving conditions. The aims of work were to examine the effects of city bus hybridization on the particle emissions and develop PN emission factors. The PN concentrations and size distributions together with engine operating conditions were measured with a Particle Measurement Program (PMP) compliant system, which involves a condensation particle counter (CPC) and a particle sizer (EEPS). The measurements under real world urban driving conditions indicated that the emission factors of the hybrid city bus for the PN and Total PN are 8.99E+12 and 2.51E+13 #/kW-h, respectively. The PN size distribution measurements indicated that the particles up to approximately 20 nm are not very sensitive to changes in engine power and they are exist even during motoring conditions. But, the particles in the size range from 20 to 200 nm are very sensitive to sudden changes of the engine power.

Key Words

Particle number Emission factor Hybrid bus City bus Real world emissions Urban driving Diesel engine 


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental EngineeringSakarya UniversitySakaryaTurkey

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