International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 151–163 | Cite as

Haptic steering support for driving near the vehicle’s handling limits; skid-pad case

  • D. I. Katzourakis
  • E. Velenis
  • E. Holweg
  • R. Happee
Article

Abstract

Current vehicle dynamic control systems from simple yaw control to high-end active steering support systems are designed to primarily actuate on the vehicle itself, rather than stimulate the driver to adapt his/her inputs for better vehicle control. The driver though dictates the vehicle’s motion, and centralizing him/her in the control loop is hypothesized to promote safety and driving pleasure. Exploring the above statement, the goal of this study is to develop and evaluate a haptic steering support when driving near the vehicle’s handling limits (Haptic Support Near the Limits; HSNL). The support aims to promote the driver’s perception of the vehicle’s behaviour and handling capacity (the vehicle’s internal model) by providing haptic (torque) cues on the steering wheel. The HSNL has been evaluated in (a) driving simulator tests and (b) tests with a vehicle (Opel Astra G/B) equipped with a variable steering feedback torque system. Drivers attempted to achieve maximum velocity while trying to retain control in a circular skid-pad. In the simulator (a) 25 subjects drove a vehicle model parameterised as the Astra on a dry skid-pad while in (b) 17 subjects drove the real Astra on a wet skid-pad. Both the driving simulator and the real vehicle tests led to the conclusion that the HSNL assisted subjects to drive closer to the designated path while achieving effectively the same speed. With the HSNL the drivers operated the tires in smaller slip angles and hence avoided saturation of the front wheels’ lateral forces and excessive understeer. Finally, the HSNL reduced their mental and physical demand.

Key Words

Handling limits Haptic steering support Human machine interface Lateral stability 

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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. I. Katzourakis
    • 1
    • 5
  • E. Velenis
    • 2
  • E. Holweg
    • 3
    • 4
  • R. Happee
    • 5
    • 4
  1. 1.Research & DevelopmentVolvo Cars CorporationGöteborgSweden
  2. 2.Department of Automotive Engineering at the School of EngineeringCranfield UniversityCranfieldUK
  3. 3.Precision and Micro Engineering, Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering (3mE)Delft University of Technology (TUDelft)DelftThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Automotive Development Center of SKFNieuwegeinThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Biomechanical Engineering3mE, TUDelftDelftThe Netherlands

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