International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 151–163 | Cite as

Haptic steering support for driving near the vehicle’s handling limits; skid-pad case

  • D. I. Katzourakis
  • E. Velenis
  • E. Holweg
  • R. Happee


Current vehicle dynamic control systems from simple yaw control to high-end active steering support systems are designed to primarily actuate on the vehicle itself, rather than stimulate the driver to adapt his/her inputs for better vehicle control. The driver though dictates the vehicle’s motion, and centralizing him/her in the control loop is hypothesized to promote safety and driving pleasure. Exploring the above statement, the goal of this study is to develop and evaluate a haptic steering support when driving near the vehicle’s handling limits (Haptic Support Near the Limits; HSNL). The support aims to promote the driver’s perception of the vehicle’s behaviour and handling capacity (the vehicle’s internal model) by providing haptic (torque) cues on the steering wheel. The HSNL has been evaluated in (a) driving simulator tests and (b) tests with a vehicle (Opel Astra G/B) equipped with a variable steering feedback torque system. Drivers attempted to achieve maximum velocity while trying to retain control in a circular skid-pad. In the simulator (a) 25 subjects drove a vehicle model parameterised as the Astra on a dry skid-pad while in (b) 17 subjects drove the real Astra on a wet skid-pad. Both the driving simulator and the real vehicle tests led to the conclusion that the HSNL assisted subjects to drive closer to the designated path while achieving effectively the same speed. With the HSNL the drivers operated the tires in smaller slip angles and hence avoided saturation of the front wheels’ lateral forces and excessive understeer. Finally, the HSNL reduced their mental and physical demand.

Key Words

Handling limits Haptic steering support Human machine interface Lateral stability 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbink, D. A. and Mulder, M. (2010). Advances in Haptics. InTech, 499–516.Google Scholar
  2. Bakker, E., Nyborg, L. and Pacejka, H. (1987). Tyre modelling for use in vehicle dynamics studies. SAE Paper No. 870421.Google Scholar
  3. Breuer, J. J. (1998). Analysis of driver-vehicle-interaction in an evasive manoueuvre — results of moose test studies. Proc. 16th ESV Conf., Paper No. 98-S2-W-35.Google Scholar
  4. Conover, W. J. and Iman, R. L. (1981). Rank transformations as a bridge between parametric and nonparametric statistics. American Statistician 35,3, 124–129.MATHGoogle Scholar
  5. Crolla, D. (2009). Automotive Engineering: Powertrain, Chassis System and Vehicle Body. 1st edn. Butterworth-Heinemann. 329.Google Scholar
  6. Dick, W., Lannoije, M., Schller, J. and Reuter, M. (2008). Dynamic Steering in the Audi Q5. Special edn. ATZ and MTZ Magazine.Google Scholar
  7. Dixon, J. C. (1996). Tires, Suspension and Handling. 2nd edn. SAE. 95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. EuroNCAP (2001). Infiniti Departure Prevention System. Scholar
  9. EuroNCAP: European New Car Assessment Programme and European Commission (2007). Choose ESC.Google Scholar
  10. Gillespie, T. D. (1992). Fundamental of Vehicle Dynamics. SAE Paper No. 203.Google Scholar
  11. Griffiths, P. and Gillespie, R. B. (2005). Sharing control between human and automation using haptic interface: Primary and secondary task performance benets. Human Factors 47,3, 574–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hart, S. G. and Staveland, L. E. (1988). Development of NASA-TLX (task load index): Results of Empirical and Theoretical Research. Human Mental Workload, P. A. Hancock and N. Meshkati edns. Amsterdam. The Netherlands. 139–183.Google Scholar
  13. Hsu, Y. H. J. and Gerdes, C. (2008). The predictive nature of pneumatic trail: Tire slip angle and peak force estimation using steering torque. Proc. AVEC08, 80–85.Google Scholar
  14. Katzourakis, D. and Holweg, E. (2012). Sensory Feedback When Driving Near the Vehicle's Handling Limits, PCT Application No: PCT/EP2012/068354, Patent Applicant, SKF B.V.Google Scholar
  15. Katzourakis, D., Abbink, D. A., Happee, R. and Holweg, E. (2011a). Steering force-feedback for human machine interface automotive experiments. IEEE Trans. Instrumentation and Measurement 60,1, 32–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Katzourakis, D., Abbink, D. A., Velenis, E., Holweg, E. and Happee, R. (2013a). Driver's arms time variant neuromuscular admittance during real car test-track driving. IEEE Trans. Instrumentation and Measurement, to be published.Google Scholar
  17. Katzourakis, D., de Winter, J. C. F., Alirezaei, M., Corno, M. and Happee, R. (2013b). Road departure prevention in an emergency obstacle avoidance situation. IEEE Trans. System, Man and Cybernetics DOI: 10.1109/ TIM. 2013. 2277610.Google Scholar
  18. Katzourakis, D., de Winter, J. C. F., de Groot, S. and Happee, R. (2012a). Driving simulator parameterization using double-lane change steering metrics as recorded on five modern cars. Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, 26, 96–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Katzourakis, D., Velenis, E. and Happee, R. (2011b). Driver control actions in high speed circular driving. Proc. 6th Int. Driving Symp. Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design, California, 598–605.Google Scholar
  20. Katzourakis, D., Velenis, E., Abbink, D. A., Happee, R. and Holweg, E. (2012b). Race car instrumentation for driving behaviour studies. IEEE Trans. Instrumentation and Measurement 61,2, 462–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Katzourakis, D., Velenis, E., Holweg, E. and Happee, R. (2012c). Haptic steering support when driving at the tires’ cornering limits. Proc. 11 th Int. Symp. Advanced Vehicle Control 2012, AVEC12, Seoul, Korea.Google Scholar
  22. Katzourakis, D., Velenis, E., Holweg, E. and Happee, R. (2012d). Haptic steering support in high speed cornering. Proc. Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics, AHFE 2012, San Francisco, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  23. Katzourakis, D., Velenis, E., Holweg, E. and Happee, R. (2012e). Haptic Steering Support for Driving Near the Vehicle’s Handling Limits. Test-track Case. Submitted for Review.Google Scholar
  24. Klier, W., Reimann, G. and Reinelt, W., ZF Lenksysteme GmbH, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Germany (2004). Concept and functionality of the active front steering system. SAE Paper No. 2004-21-0073.Google Scholar
  25. LeBlanc, D., Sayer, J., Winkler, C., Ervin, R., Bogard, S., Devonshire, J. Mefford, M., Hagan, M., Bareket, Z., Goodsell, R. and Gordon, T. (2006). Road Departure Crash Warning System Field Operational Test: Methodology and Results, 1, Technical report. 〈 Scholar
  26. Milliken, W. F. and Milliken, D. L. (1995). Race Car Vehicle Dynamics: Problems, Answers and Experiments. SAE. 32.Google Scholar
  27. Mulder, M., Abbink, D. A. and Boer, E. R. (2008). The effect of haptic guidance on curve negotiation behaviour of young, experienced drivers. 2008 Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. SMC, 804–809.Google Scholar
  28. NHTSA: National Highway Traffic System Administrator (2007). Electronic Stability Control System, FMVSS, 126.Google Scholar
  29. Nordeen, D. L., General Motors (1971). Vehicle Power Steering Gear with Lateral Acceleration Feedback Means, United States Patent: 3552517, Patented.Google Scholar
  30. Owen, J., Farrelly, P. and Barton, A. (2007). Haptic Controller for Road Vehicles. European Patent Number: 7234564, Patented.Google Scholar
  31. Pacejka, H. B. (2006). Tyre and Vehicle Dynamics. SAE. 2nd edn. 6.Google Scholar
  32. Penna, M. D., van Paassen, M. M., Abbink, D. A., Mulder, M. and Mulder, M. (2010). Reducing steering wheel stiffness is beneficial in supporting evasive maneuvers. 2010 Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. SMC, Istanbul, Turkey, 1628–1635.Google Scholar
  33. Pfeffer, P. E., Harrer, M. and Johnston, D. N. (2008). Interaction of vehicle and steering system regarding oncentre handling. Vehicle System Dynamics 46,5, 413–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Psychology World (2012). Within-Subjects Designs. Google Scholar
  35. Rajamani, R. (2006). Vehicle Dynamics and Control. Springer. 408.MATHGoogle Scholar
  36. TUDelft, SKF and Prodrive (2012). Steering Support Research. Google Scholar
  37. Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg, Service Training, Self-Study Programme 317 (2012). The Electro-Mechanical Power Steering with Dual Pinion, Design and Function. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. I. Katzourakis
    • 1
    • 5
  • E. Velenis
    • 2
  • E. Holweg
    • 3
    • 4
  • R. Happee
    • 5
    • 4
  1. 1.Research & DevelopmentVolvo Cars CorporationGöteborgSweden
  2. 2.Department of Automotive Engineering at the School of EngineeringCranfield UniversityCranfieldUK
  3. 3.Precision and Micro Engineering, Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering (3mE)Delft University of Technology (TUDelft)DelftThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Automotive Development Center of SKFNieuwegeinThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Biomechanical Engineering3mE, TUDelftDelftThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations