International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 13, Issue 7, pp 1023–1032 | Cite as

Investigation of particle emission characteristics from a diesel engine with a diesel particulate filter for alternative fuels

  • D. Wang
  • Z. C. LiuEmail author
  • J. Tian
  • J. W. Liu
  • J. R. Zhang


Particle number measurement is a new approach to determine emission, which may be more accurate at very low emission levels than when using gravimetric measurements. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of fuel properties on the performance, combustion process, regulated gaseous emissions and particle number emissions of a diesel engine with an uncatalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). The effect of the filter on the particle size distribution was reported. The DPF number-based filtration efficiency in terms of number efficiency and fractional efficiency for petroleum diesel fuel and two alternative fuels, BTL and GTL, were analyzed. For nearly all test modes, the filter had a higher number efficiency for diesel than for BTL and GTL. The DPF fractional efficiency showed it was highly dependent on fuel type and varied widely at each size range. For diesel, the filter fractional efficiency was sufficiently high and behaved as predicted by filtration theory. For BTL and GTL, the fractional performance of the filter decreased when unexpectedly low efficiencies within the nuclei mode were exhibited. This research will be helpful in understanding DPF number-based filtration performance for alternative fuels and will provide information for the development of particulate emission control technology.

Key Words

Diesel engine Diesel particulate filter Alternative fuels Particle size distribution Number efficiency Fractional efficiency 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Azimov, U. B., Kim, K. S. and Jeong, D. S. (2011) Instantaneous 2-D visualization of spray combustion and flame luminosity of GTL and GTL-biodiesel fuel blends under quiescent ambient conditions. Int. J. Automotive Technology 12,1, 159–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cho, Y. S., Kim, D. S. and Park, Y. J. (2008). Pressure drop and heat transfer of catalyzed diesel particulate filters due to changes in soot loading and flow rate. Int. J. Automotive Technology 9,4, 391–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cheng, A., Dibble, R. and Buchholz, B. (2002). The effect of oxygenates on diesel engine particulate matter. SAE Paper No. 2002-01-1705.Google Scholar
  4. Filippo, D. A. and Ciaravino, C. (2011). Particle number, size and mass emissions of different biodiesel blends versus ULSD from a small displacement automotive diesel engine. SAE Paper No. 2011-01-0633.Google Scholar
  5. Huynh, T. C., Johnson, H. J., Yang, L. S., Bagley, T. S. and Warner, R. J. (2003). A one-dimensional computational model for studying the filtration and regeneration characteristics of a catalyzed wall-flow diesel particulate filter. SAE Paper No. 2003-01-0841.Google Scholar
  6. Joshi, A., Chatterjee, S. and Walker, A. (2011). An evaluation of particle size distributions and particle number-based reductions from various PM emission control technologies. SAE Paper No. 2011-01-0600.Google Scholar
  7. Johnson, T., Caldow, R., Pöcher, A., Mirme, A. and Kittelson, D. (2004). A new electrical mobility particle sizer spectrometer for engine exhaust particle measurements. SAE Paper No. 2004-01-1341.Google Scholar
  8. Khalek, A. I., Kittelson, B. D. and Brear, F. (2000). Nanoparticle growth during dilution and cooling of diesel exhaust: Experimental investigation and theoretical assessment. SAE Paper No. 2000-01-0515.Google Scholar
  9. Konstandopoulos, A. G., Kostoglou, M., Skaperdas, E., Papaioannou, E., Zarvalis, D. and Kladopoulou, E. (2000). Fundamental studies of diesel particulate filters: Transient loading, regeneration and aging. SAE Paper No. 2000-01-1016.Google Scholar
  10. Kim, H., Lee, S., Kim, J., Cho, G., Sung, N. and Jeong, Y. (2005). Measurement of size distribution of diesel particles: Effect of instruments, dilution methods and measuring positions. Int. J. Automotive Technology 6,2, 119–124.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. Liu, Z. G., Verdegan, M. B., Badeau, M. A. K. and Sonsalla, P. T. (2002). Measuring the fractional efficiency of diesel particulate filters. SAE Paper No. 2002-01-1007.Google Scholar
  12. Liu, Z. G., Matthew, D. S. and Joseph, C. L. (2003). Diesel particulate filters: trends and implications of particle size distribution measurement. SAE Paper No. 2003-01-0046.Google Scholar
  13. Lapuerta, M., Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. and Agudelo, J. R. (2007). Diesel particulate emissions from used cooking oil biodiesel. Bioresource Technol., 99, 731–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lapuerta, M., Armas, O. and Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. (2008). Effect of biodiesel fuels on diesel engine emissions. Prog. Energy. Combust. Sci., 34, 198–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lee, C. H., Oh, K. C., Lee, C. B., Kim, D. J., Jo, J. D. and Cho, T. D. (2007). Injection strategy of diesel fuel for an active regeneration DPF system. Int. J. Automotive Technology 8,1, 27–31.Google Scholar
  16. Lee, J. W., Jeong, Y. I., Jung, M. W., Cha, K. O., Kwon, S. I., Kim, J. C. and Park, S. (2008). Experimental investigation and comparison of nanoparticle emission characteristics in light-duty vehicles for two different fuels. Int. J. Automotive Technology 9,4, 397–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lee, S., Cho, Y., Song, M., Kim, H., Park, J. and Baik, D. (2012). Experimental study on the characteristics of nano-particle emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine using a urea-SCR system. Int. J. Automotive Technology 13,3, 355–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li, X., Huang, Z., Wang, J. and Wu, J. (2008). Characteristics of ultrafine particles emitted from a dimethyl ether (DME) engine. Chinese Science Bulletin 53,2, 304–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Myung, C., Kim, J., Kwon, S., Choi, K., Ko, A. and Park, S. (2011). Nano-particle emission characteristics of European and worldwide harmonized test cycles for heavy-duty diesel engines. Int. J. Automotive Technology 12,3, 331–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Myung, C. L. and Park, S. (2012). Exhaust nanoparticle emissions from internal combustion engines: A review. Int. J. Automotive Technology 13,1, 9–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Maricq, M. M., Chase, R. E., Podsiadlik, D. H. and Vogt, R. (1999). Vehicle exhaust particle size distributions: A comparison of tailpipe and dilution tunnel measurements. SAE Paper No. 1999-01-1461.Google Scholar
  22. Pushkar, T., Achim, H., Jeanni, W., Naveen, K. and Kranthi, C. (2010). Measurement and prediction of filtration efficiency evolution of soot loaded diesel particulate filters. Chem. Eng. Sci., 65, 4751–4760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Schneider, J., Hock, N., Weimer, S., Borrmann, S., Kirchner, U., Vogt, R. and Scheer, V. (2005). Nucleation particles in diesel exhaust: Composition inferred from in situ mass spectrometric analysis. Environ. Sci. Tech., 39, 6153–6161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tan, P., Lou, D. and Hu, Z. (2010). Nucleation mode particle emissions from a diesel engine with biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuels. SAE Paper No. 2010-01-0787.Google Scholar
  25. Vaaraslahti, K., Virtanen, A., Ristimäki, J. and Keskinen, J. (2004). Nucleation mode formation in heavy duty diesel exhaust with and without a particulate filter. Environ. Sci. Tech., 38, 4884–4890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Vaaraslahti, K., Virtanen, A., Ristimäki, J. and Keskinen, J. (2004). Effect of after-treatment systems on size distribution of heavy duty diesel exhaust aerosol. SAE Paper No. 2004-01-1980.Google Scholar
  27. Yao, D., Lou, D., Hu, Z. and Tan, P. (2011). Experimental investigation on particle number and size distribution of a common rail diesel engine fueling with alternative blended diesel fuels. SAE Paper No. 2011-01-0620.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Wang
    • 1
  • Z. C. Liu
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. Tian
    • 1
  • J. W. Liu
    • 2
  • J. R. Zhang
    • 2
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Automobile Simulation and ControlJilin UniversityChangchunChina
  2. 2.Research and Development CenterFAW Group CorporationChangchunChina

Personalised recommendations