Effects of gasoline, diesel, LPG, and low-carbon fuels and various certification modes on nanoparticle emission characteristics in light-duty vehicles
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This study was focused on experimental comparisons of the effects of various vehicle certification modes on particle emission characteristics of light-duty vehicles with gasoline, diesel, LPG, and low-carbon fuels such as bio-diesel, bioethanol, and compressed natural gas, respectively. The particulate matter from various fueled vehicles was analyzed with the golden particle measurement system recommended by the particle measurement programme, which consists of CVS, a particle number counter, and particle number diluters. To verify particle number and size distribution characteristics, various vehicle emission certification modes such as NEDC, FTP-75, and HWFET were compared to evaluate particle formation with both CPC and DMS500. The formation of particles was highly dependent on vehicle speed and load conditions for each mode. In particular, the particle numbers of conventional fuels and low-carbon fuels sharply increased during cold start, fast transient acceleration, and high-load operation phases of the vehicle emission tests. A diesel vehicle fitted with a particulate filter showed substantial reduction of particulate matter with a number concentration equivalent to gasoline and LPG fuel. Moreover, bio-fuels and natural gas have the potential to reduce the particulate emissions with the help of clean combustion and low-carbon fuel quality compared to non-DPF diesel-fueled vehicles.
Key WordsParticulate matter Nanoparticles Diesel particulate filter Differential mobility spectrometer Condensation particle counter Low-carbon fuels
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