Lagoon systems are more heavily impacted by hurricanes, whereas the relevant storm surge modeling studies have been paid little attention to lagoon systems and the storm-induced exchange in lagoon systems is even less understood. To address this gap, a three-dimensional unstructured grid-based model was configured for the Maryland Coastal Bays, a typical lagoon system with two unique inlets (Ocean City Inlet (OCI) and Chincoteague Inlet (CI)), to investigate how Hurricane Sandy impacted inlet dynamics. A nesting model framework was applied to provide the necessary remote forcing from a large model domain and maintain the intricate shoreline and bathymetry of an inner model domain. Results indicated that the flux patterns varied in response to the change in wind direction and rising/falling high water levels from the coastal ocean, rather than a single flow pattern during the passage of Sandy. From October 29 05:00 to 17:00 UTC, mild (> 10 m/s) and strong (> 15 m/s) northerly winds accompanied by the rising high water level from the coastal ocean promoted a mean inflow pattern at the OCI and a mean outflow pattern at the CI. Strong southwesterly winds (> 15 m/s) dominated in the bays from October 30 03:00 to 15:00 UTC. Under strong southwesterly winds and falling high water levels from the coastal ocean, flux was transported landward at the CI and seaward at the OCI. Sensitivity experiments on various storm temporal scales showed that a net inflow pattern occurred in the bays, and the net exchange amounts became smaller in response to longer storm durations. Residual effect of relatively high river flow from Sandy could still influence the salinity at the OCI, whereas the CI salinity was not affected by river flow owing to a long distance between the CI and river locations.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Beudin, A., N.K. Ganju, Z. Defne, and A.L. Aretxabaleta. 2017. Physical response of a back-barrier estuary to a post-tropical cyclone. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 122: 5888–5904.
Blake, E.S., T.B. Kimberlain, R.J. Berg, J.P. Cangialosi, and J.L. Beven II. 2013. Tropical Cyclone Report Hurricane Sandy (AL182102) 22–29 October 2012. National Hurricane: Center.
Boynton, W.R., L. Murray, J.D. Hagy, C. Stokes, and W.M. Kemp. 1996. A comparative analysis of eutrophication patterns in a temperate coastal lagoon. Estuaries 19: 408–421.
Brown, J.M., A.J. Souza, and J. Wolf. 2010. An 11-year validation of wave-surge modelling in the Irish Sea, using a nested POLCOMS-WAM modelling system. Ocean Modelling 33 (1–2): 118–128.
Brown, M.M., R.P. Mulligan, and R.L. Miller. 2014. Modeling the transport of freshwater and dissolved organic carbon in the Neuse River Estuary, NC, USA following Hurricane Irene (2011). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 139: 148–158.
Cho, K.H., H.V. Wang, J. Shen, A. Valle-Levinson, and Y.C. Teng. 2012. A modeling study on the response of Chesapeake Bay to hurricane events of Floyd and Isabel. Ocean Modelling 49: 22–46.
Danard, M., A. Munro, and T. Murty. 2003. Storm surge hazard in Canada. Natural Hazards 28 (2–3): 407–434.
Duan, S., N. Chen, S.S. Kaushal, P. Chigbu, A. Ishaque, E. May, and O.F. Oseji. 2015. Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen in Maryland's coastal bays. Estuary Coastal and Shelf Science 164: 451–462.
Egbert, G.D., and S.Y. Erofeeva. 2002. Efficient inverse modeling of barotropic ocean tides. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 19: 183–204.
Holland, G.J. 1980. An analytic model of the wind and pressure profiles in hurricanes. Monthly Weather Review 108 (8): 1212–1218.
Kang, X., M. Xia, J.S. Pitula, and P. Chigbu. 2017. Dynamics of water and salt exchange at Maryland Coastal Bays. Estuary Coastal and Shelf Science 189: 1–16.
Krantz, D.E., C.A. Schupp, C.C. Spaur, J.E. Thomas, and D.V. Wells. 2009. Dynamic systems at the land-sea interface. In: Dennison W.C., J.E. Thomas, C.J. Cain, T.J.B. Carruthers, M.R. Hall, R.V. Jesien, C.E. Wazniak, and D.E. Wilson (Eds.), Shifting sands: environmental and cultural change in Maryland’s Coastal Bays. IAN Press at University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Cambridge, MD, pp. 211-248.
Large, W.G., and S. Pond. 1981. Open ocean momentum flux measurements in moderate to strong winds. Journal of Physical Oceanography 11 (3): 324–336.
Lewis, R., and A. Babson. 2018. Comparison of sea level rise and storm surge modeling in three of the National Park Service’s coastal parks to facilitate adaptation strategies. SURFO Technical Report No. 18-01: 34.
Li, C., E. Weeks, and J.L. Rego. 2009. In situ measurements of saltwater flux through tidal passes of Lake Pontchartrain estuary by Hurricanes Gustav and Ike in September 2008. Geophysical Research Letters 36: L19609.
Liu, Q., E.J. Anderson, Y. Zhang, A.D. Weinke, K.L. Knapp, and B.A. Biddanda. 2018. Modeling reveals the role of coastal upwelling and hydrologic inputs on biologically distinct water exchanges in a Great Lakes estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 209: 41–55.
Lung, W.S. 1994. Water quality modeling of the St. Martin River, Assawoman and Isle of Wight Bays, 156. Maryland Department of the Environment.
Ma, Z., G. Han, and B. Young. 2015. Oceanic responses to Hurricane Igor over the Grand Banks: a modeling study. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 120 (2): 1276–1295.
Mao, M., and M. Xia. 2018. Wave-current dynamics and interactions near the two inlets of a shallow lagoon-inlet-coastal ocean system under hurricane conditions. Ocean Modelling 129: 124–144.
Morey, S.L., S. Baig, M.A. Bourassa, D.S. Dukhovskoy, and J.J. O’Brien. 2006. Remote forcing contribution to storm-induced sea level rise during Hurricane Dennis. Geophysical Research Letters 33 (19).
Munroe, D., A. Tabatabai, I. Burt, D. Bushek, E.N. Powell, and J. Wilkin. 2013. Oyster mortality in Delaware Bay: impacts and recovery from Hurricane Irene and Tropical Storm Lee. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 135: 209–219.
Orton, P., N. Georgas, A. Blumberg, and J. Pullen. 2012. Detailed modeling of recent severe storm tides in estuaries of the New York City region. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 117 (C09030).
Pritchard, D.W. 1960. Salt balance and exchange rate for Chincoteague Bay. Chesapeake Science 1 (1): 48–57.
Psuty, N.P., and D.D. Ofiara. 2002. Coastal hazard management: lessons and future directions from New Jersey. Rutgers University Press.
Rego, J. L., and Li, C. 2010. Storm surge propagation in Galveston Bay during hurricane Ike. Journal of Marine Systems 82(4):265–279
Shen, J., and W. Gong. 2009. Influence of model domain size, wind directions and Ekman transport on storm surge development inside the Chesapeake Bay: a case study of extratropical cyclone Ernesto, 2006. Journal of Marine System 75 (1–2): 198–215.
Shen, J., W. Gong, and H.V. Wang. 2006a. Water level response to 1999 Hurricane Floyd in the Chesapeake Bay. Continental Shelf Research 26 (19): 2484–2502.
Shen, J., H. Wang, M. Sisson, and W. Gong. 2006b. Storm tide simulation in the Chesapeake Bay using an unstructured grid model. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 68 (1–2): 1–16.
Umgiesser, G., C. Ferrarin, A. Cucco, F. De Pascalis, D. Bellafiore, M. Ghezzo, and M. Bajo. 2014. Comparative hydrodynamics of 10 Mediterranean lagoons by means of numerical modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 119 (4): 2212–2226.
Valle-Levinson, A., E. Stanev, and T.H. Badewien. 2018. Tidal and subtidal exchange flows at an inlet of the Wadden Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 202: 270–279.
Wang, H., Z. Wang, J.D. Loftis, and Y.C. Teng. 2013. Hydrodynamic and water quality modeling and TMDL development for Maryland’s Coastal Bays system. TMDL Technical Development Program: Final report submitted to Maryland Department of the Environment.
Warner, J.C., W.C. Schwab, J.H. List, I. Safak, M. Liste, and W. Baldwin. 2017. Inner-Shelf Ocean dynamics and seafloor morphologic changes during hurricane Sandy. Continental Shelf Research 138: 1–18.
Wazniak, C.E, D. Wells, and M.R. Hall. 2005. The Maryland Coastal Bays ecosystem. In: Wazniak, C.E., M.R. Hall (Eds.), Maryland’s Coastal Bays: Ecosystem Health Assessment 2004. Annapolis, MD, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Document number: DNR-12-1202-0009, pp. 1-9-1-20.
Weisberg, R.H., and L. Zheng. 2006. Hurricane storm surge simulations for Tampa Bay. Estuaries and Coasts 29 (6): 899–913.
Xia, M., L. Xie, L.J. Pietrafesa, and M. Peng. 2008. A numerical study of storm surge in the Cape Fear River Estuary and adjacent coast. Journal of Coastal Research 24 (4A): 159–167.
Xia, M., L. Xie, L.J. Pietrafesa, and M.M. Whitney. 2011. The ideal response of a Gulf of Mexico estuary plume to wind forcing: its connection with salt flux and a Lagrangian view. Journal of Geophysical Research 116: C08035.
Numerical simulation was carried out on Cheyenne (support to X. Kang) of the Computational & Information Systems Lab. Observational data were all obtained from MD-DNR and NOAA/National Ocean Science. We thank Eyes on the Bay team for sharing the observed pressure sensor data with us. We also thank Drs. Neil Kamal Ganju and Alexis Beudin (USGS, Woods Hole) for consulting the NAM wind source. The constructive comments from two editors Drs. Norb Psuty and Amanda Babson and two anonymous reviewers are kindly appreciated and helped to improve this manuscript.
This work is partially supported by National Science Foundation Nos. 1547821 and 1856630.
Communicated by Nathan Waltham
About this article
Cite this article
Kang, X., Xia, M. The Study of the Hurricane-Induced Storm Surge and Bay-Ocean Exchange Using a Nesting Model. Estuaries and Coasts (2020) doi:10.1007/s12237-020-00695-3
- Maryland Coastal Bays
- Hurricane Sandy
- Model nesting
- Flux dynamics