Estuaries and Coasts

, Volume 41, Supplement 1, pp 180–196 | Cite as

Generalizing Ecological Effects of Shoreline Armoring Across Soft Sediment Environments

  • J. E. Dugan
  • K. A. Emery
  • M. Alber
  • C. R. Alexander
  • J. E. Byers
  • A. M. Gehman
  • N. McLenaghan
  • S. E. Sojka


Despite its widespread use, the ecological effects of shoreline armoring are poorly synthesized and difficult to generalize across soft sediment environments and structure types. We developed a conceptual model that scales predicted ecological effects of shore-parallel armoring based on two axes: engineering purpose of structure (reduce/slow velocities or prevent/stop flow of waves and currents) and hydrodynamic energy (e.g., tides, currents, waves) of soft sediment environments. We predicted greater ecological impacts for structures intended to stop as opposed to slow water flow and with increasing hydrodynamic energy of the environment. We evaluated our predictions with a literature review of effects of shoreline armoring for six possible ecological responses (habitat distribution, species assemblages, trophic structure, nutrient cycling, productivity, and connectivity). The majority of studies were in low-energy environments (51 of 88), and a preponderance addressed changes in two ecological responses associated with armoring: habitat distribution and species assemblages. Across the 207 armoring effects studied, 71% were significantly negative, 22% were significantly positive, and 7% reported no significant difference. Ecological responses varied with engineering purpose of structures, with a higher frequency of negative responses for structures designed to stop water flow within a given hydrodynamic energy level. Comparisons across the hydrodynamic energy axis were less clear-cut, but negative responses prevailed (>78%) in high-energy environments. These results suggest that generalizations of ecological responses to armoring across a range of environmental contexts are possible and that the proposed conceptual model is useful for generating predictions of the direction and relative ecological impacts of shoreline armoring in soft sediment ecosystems.


Coastal armoring Shore protection structures Salt marsh Mangrove Estuary Beach Ecosystem function 



This study was supported by an LTER Network synthesis working group award from the National Science Foundation and made possible by participants from the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems, Virginia Coast Reserve, Santa Barbara Coastal, Plum Island Ecosystems, and Florida Coastal Everglades Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) projects. We thank Karen McGlathery and the staff of the Virginia Coast Reserve LTER and the Anheuser-Busch Coastal Research Center, University of Virginia, and the staff of the Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, University of Georgia and the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER for hosting the working group meetings. We are grateful to the LTER Network Office for the logistical support for the working group meetings. We gratefully acknowledge the National Science Foundation’s support of the Long Term Ecological Research programs of Santa Barbara Coastal LTER (Award No. OCE-1232779), the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER (Award No. OCE 12-37140), and the Virginia Coast Reserve LTER (Grant No. 1237733). We thank the National Science Foundation (Award No. OCE 14-58845) for support during manuscript preparation. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation (NSF).

Supplementary material

12237_2017_254_MOESM1_ESM.docx (15 kb)
Table S1 Examples of positive and negative effects of shoreline armoring for each ecological response category (E1-E6). (DOCX 15 kb)
12237_2017_254_MOESM2_ESM.docx (32 kb)
Table S2 List of studies of ecological effects of shoreline armoring included in the literature review. Studies are categorized by intended effect of the armoring structure on water flow, the hydrodynamic energy of the environment, and the box number in the conceptual model. The environment category and type of armoring is also provided for each study. * Studies included in literature review but not directly cited in main body of the paper are listed at end of the table. (DOCX 31.5 kb)
12237_2017_254_MOESM3_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Table S3 Mean values of effect sizes (r2) for studies that quantified species assemblages (E2), for each of the six boxes in the conceptual model. Mean values are based on the absolute values of effect size. Standard deviation and sample size (number of measurements used in calculation, not studies) are in parentheses for each box. (DOCX 17.0 kb)


  1. Airoldi, Laura, Marco Abbiati, Michael W. Beck, Stephen J. Hawkins, Per R. Jonsson, Daniel Martin, Paula S. Moschella, Andreas Sundelöf, Richard C. Thompson, and Per Åberg. 2005. An ecological perspective on the deployment and design of low-crested and other hard coastal defence structures. Coastal Engineering 52: 1073–1087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anthony, Edward J., and Nicolas Gratiot. 2012. Coastal engineering and large-scale mangrove destruction in Guyana, South America: averting an environmental catastrophe in the making. Ecological Engineering 47: 268–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bacchiocchi, Francesca, and Laura Airoldi. 2003. Distribution and dynamics of epibiota on hard structures for coastal protection. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 56: 1157–1166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baily, Brian, and Alistair W. Pearson. 2007. Change detection mapping and analysis of salt marsh areas of central southern England from Hurst Castle Spit to Pagham Harbour. Journal of Coastal Research 23: 1549–1564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balouskus, Richard G., and Timothy E. Targett. 2012. Egg deposition by Atlantic Silverside, Menidia menidia: substrate utilization and comparison of natural and altered shoreline type. Estuaries and Coasts 35: 1100–1109.Google Scholar
  6. Balouskus, Richard G., and Timothy E. Targett. 2016. Fish and blue crab density along a riprap-sill-hardened shoreline: comparisons with Spartina marsh and riprap. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 145: 766–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bernhard, Anne E., David Marshall, and Lazaros Yiannos. 2012. Increased variability of microbial communities in restored salt marshes nearly 30 years after tidal flow restoration. Estuaries and Coasts 35: 1049–1059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bilkovic, Donna M. 2011. Response of tidal creek fish communities to dredging and coastal development pressures in a shallow-water estuary. Estuaries and Coasts 34: 129–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bilkovic, Donna M., and Molly M. Mitchell. 2013. Ecological tradeoffs of stabilized salt marshes as a shoreline protection strategy: effects of artificial structures on macrobenthic assemblages. Ecological Engineering 61: 469–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bilkovic, Donna M., and Molly M. Roggero. 2008. Effects of coastal development on nearshore estuarine nekton communities. Marine Ecology Progress Series 358: 27–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bilkovic, Donna M., Molly Mitchell, Pam Mason, and Karen Duhring. 2016. The role of living shorelines as estuarine habitat conservation strategies. Coastal Management44:3, 161–174.Google Scholar
  12. Bolduc, Francois, and Alan D. Afton. 2003. Effects of structural marsh management and salinity on invertebrate prey of waterbirds in marsh ponds during winter on the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain. Wetlands 23: 897–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bolduc, Francois, and Alan D. Afton. 2004. Hydrologic aspects of marsh ponds during winter on the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain, USA: effects of structural marsh management. Marine Ecology Progress Series 266: 35–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boys, Craig A., Frederieke J. Kroon, Tim M. Glasby, Kevin Wilkinson. 2012. Improved fish and crustacean passage in tidal creeks following floodgate remediation. Journal of Applied Ecology 49(1): 223–233.Google Scholar
  15. Bozek, Catherine M., and David M. Burdick. 2005. Impacts of seawalls on saltmarsh plant communities in the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire USA. Wetlands Ecology and Management 13: 553–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Browne, Mark A., and M. Gee Chapman. 2011. Ecologically informed engineering reduces loss of intertidal biodiversity on artificial shorelines. Environmental Science & Technology 45: 8204–8207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Browne, Mark A., and M. Gee Chapman. 2014. Mitigating against the loss of species by adding artificial intertidal pools to existing seawalls. Marine Ecology Progress Series 497: 119–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bryant, John C., and Robert H. Chabreck. 1998. Effects of impoundment on vertical accretion of coastal marsh. Estuaries 21: 416–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bulleri, Fabio, and Laura Airoldi. 2005. Artificial marine structures facilitate the spread of a non-indigenous green alga, Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides, in the north Adriatic Sea. Journal of Applied Ecology 42: 1063–1072.Google Scholar
  20. Bulleri, Fabio, and Maura G. Chapman. 2010. The introduction of coastal infrastructure as a driver of change in marine environments. Journal of Applied Ecology 47: 26–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Charlier, Roger H., Marie Claire P. Chaineux, and Selim Morcos. 2005. Panorama of the history of coastal protection. Journal of Coastal Research 21:(1), 79–111.Google Scholar
  22. Currin, Carolyn A., Priscilla C. Delano, and Lexia M. Valdes-Weaver. 2008. Utilization of a citizen monitoring protocol to assess the structure and function of natural and stabilized fringing salt marshes in North Carolina. Wetlands Ecology and Management 16: 97–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davis, J.L.D., L.A. Levin, and S.M. Walther. 2002. Artificial armored shorelines: sites for open-coast species in a southern California bay. Marine Biology 140: 1249–1262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dethier, Megan N., Wendel W. Raymond, Aundrea N. McBride, Jason D. Toft, Jeffery R. Cordell, Andrea S. Ogston, Sarah M. Heerhartz, and Helen D. Berry. 2016. Multiscale impacts of armoring on Salish Sea shorelines: evidence for cumulative and threshold effects. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 175: 106–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dick, Todd M., and Olusegun O. Osunkoya. 2000. Influence of tidal restriction floodgates on decomposition of mangrove litter. Aquatic Botany 68: 273–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Drexler, Michael, Melanie L. Parker, Stephen P. Geiger, William S. Arnold, and Pamela Hallock. 2014. Biological assessment of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) inhabiting reef, mangrove, seawall, and restoration substrates. Estuaries and Coasts 37: 962–972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dugan, Jenifer E., and David M. Hubbard. 2006. Ecological responses to coastal armoring on exposed sandy beaches. Shore & Beach 74: 10–16.Google Scholar
  28. Dugan, J.E., Airoldi, L., Chapman, M.G., Walker, S. and T.A. Schlacher. 2012. Estuarine and coastal structures: environmental effects: a focus on shore and nearshore structures. In: Human-induced problems (uses and abuses), In: Estuaries and coasts, eds. M. Kennish, M. Elliot, 17–41. Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science Vol. 8 Chapter 2, Elsevier.Google Scholar
  29. Dugan, Jenifer E., David M. Hubbard, Iván F. Rodil, David L. Revell, and Stephen Schroeter. 2008. Ecological effects of coastal armoring on sandy beaches. Marine Ecology 29: 160–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. US Army Corps of Engineers. 2002. Coastal Engineering Manual. Engineer Manual 1110: 2–1100.Google Scholar
  31. Fletcher, Charles H., Robert A. Mullane and Bruce M. Richmond. 1997. Beach loss along armored shorelines on Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Journal of Coastal Research v.13, no. 1, 209–215.Google Scholar
  32. Freiss, D., I. Möller and T. Spencer. 2008. Case Study: Managed Realignment and the Re-establishment of Saltmarsh Habitat, Freiston Shore, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom. In: The Role of Environmental Management and Eco-Engineering in Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation, 65–78. Nyon, Switzerland: ProAct Network Association.Google Scholar
  33. Geraldi, Nathan R., Ashley R. Smyth, Michael F. Piehler, and Charles H. Peterson. 2014. Artificial substrates enhance non-native macroalga and N2 production. Biological Invasions 16: 1819–1831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gittman, Rachel K., F. Joel Fodrie, Alyssa M. Popowich, Danielle A. Keller, John F. Bruno, Carolyn A. Currin, Charles H. Peterson, and Michael F. Piehler. 2015. Engineering away our natural defenses: an analysis of shoreline hardening in the US. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 13: 301–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gittman, Rachel K., Charles H. Peterson, Carolyn A. Currin, F. Joel Fodrie, Michael F. Piehler, and John F. Bruno. 2016a. Living shorelines can enhance the nursery role of threatened estuarine habitats. Ecological Applications 26: 249–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gittman, Rachel K., Alyssa M. Popowich, John F. Bruno, and Charles H. Peterson. 2014. Marshes with and without sills protect estuarine shorelines from erosion better than bulkheads during a category 1 hurricane. Ocean & Coastal Management 102: 94–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gittman, Rachel. K., Stephen B.  Scyphers,  Carter S. Smith, Isabelle P. Neylan, and Jonathan H. Grabowski. 2016b. Ecological consequences of shoreline hardening: a meta-analysis. BioScience 66 (9): 763-773.Google Scholar
  38. Grabowski, Jonathan H., A. Randall Hughes, David L. Kimbro, and Margaret A. Dolan. 2005. How habitat setting influences restored oyster reef communities. Ecology 86: 1926–1935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Griggs, Gary B. 2005a. California’s retreating coastline: where do we go from here. In California and the World Ocean 2002, eds. Orville T. Magoon, Hugh Converse, Brian Baird, Beth Jines, Melissa Miller-Henson, 121–125. Reston, Virginia: American Society of Civil Engineers.Google Scholar
  40. Griggs, Gary B. 2005b. The impacts of coastal armoring. Shore and beach 73: 13–22.Google Scholar
  41. Griggs, Gary B. 2010. The effects of armoring shorelines—the California experience. In Puget Sound Shorelines and the Impacts of Armoring—Proceedings of a State of the Science Workshop, eds Hugh Shipman, Megan Dethier, Guy Gelfenbaum, Kurt L Fresh, RS Dincola, 77–84. Reston, Virginia: US Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010–5254.Google Scholar
  42. Hall, Mary J., and Orrin H. Pilkey. 1991. Effects of hard stabilization on dry beach width for New Jersey. Journal of Coastal Research v. 7, no. 3, 771–785.Google Scholar
  43. Hayes, Miles O. 1979. Barrier island morphology as a function of tidal and wave regime. In Barrier Islands, ed. S.P. Leatherman, 1–27. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  44. Heatherington, C., and Melanie J. Bishop. 2012. Spatial variation in the structure of mangrove forests with respect to seawalls. Marine and Freshwater Research 63: 926–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Heerhartz, Sarah M., Megan N. Dethier, Jason D. Toft, Jeffery R. Cordell, and Andrea S. Ogston. 2014. Effects of shoreline armoring on beach wrack subsidies to the nearshore ecotone in an estuarine fjord. Estuaries and Coasts 37: 1256–1268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Heerhartz, Sarah M., and Jason D. Toft. 2015. Movement patterns and feeding behavior of juvenile salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) along armored and unarmored estuarine shorelines. Environmental Biology of Fishes 98: 1501–1511.Google Scholar
  47. Heerhartz, Sarah M., Jason D. Toft, Jeffery R. Cordell, Megan N. Dethier, and Andrea S. Ogston. 2016. Shoreline armoring in an estuary constrains wrack-associated invertebrate communities. Estuaries and Coasts 39: 171–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hendon, J. Read, Mark S. Peterson, and Bruce H. Comyns. 2000. Spatio-temporal distribution of larval Gobiosoma bosc in waters adjacent to natural and altered marsh-edge habitats of Mississippi coastal waters. Bulletin of Marine Science 66: 143–156.Google Scholar
  49. Hieu, Phung Dang, and Phan Ngoc Vinh. 2012. Numerical study of wave overtopping of a seawall supported by porous structures. Applied Mathematical Modelling 36: 2803–2813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Isdell, Robert E., Randolph M. Chambers, Donna M. Bilkovic, and Matthias Leu. 2015. Effects of terrestrial–aquatic connectivity on an estuarine turtle. Diversity and Distributions 21: 643–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jackson, Nancy L., Karl F. Nordstrom, Sherestha Saini, and David R. Smith. 2015. Influence of configuration of bulkheads on use of estuarine beaches by horseshoe crabs and foraging shorebirds. Environmental Earth Sciences 74: 5749–5758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jaramillo, Eduardo, Jenifer E. Dugan, David M. Hubbard, Daniel Melnick, Mario Manzano, Cristian Duarte, Cesar Campos, and Roland Sanchez. 2012. Ecological implications of extreme events: footprints of the 2010 earthquake along the Chilean coast. PloS One 7: e35348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Karim, Mohammed Fazlul, Katsutoshi Tanimoto, and Phung Dang Hieu. 2009. Modelling and simulation of wave transformation in porous structures using VOF based two-phase flow model. Applied Mathematical Modelling 33: 343–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kraus, Nicholas C., and William G. McDougal. 1996. The effects of seawalls on the beach: part I, an updated literature review. Journal of Coastal Research v. 12, no. 3, 691–701.Google Scholar
  55. Lawless, Amanda S., and Rochelle D. Seitz. 2014. Effects of shoreline stabilization and environmental variables on benthic infaunal communities in the Lynnhaven River System of Chesapeake Bay. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 457: 41–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lowe, Michael R., and Mark S. Peterson. 2014. Effects of coastal urbanization on salt-marsh faunal assemblages in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Marine and Coastal Fisheries 6: 89–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lowe, Michael R., and Mark S. Peterson. 2015. Body condition and foraging patterns of nekton from salt marsh habitats arrayed along a gradient of urbanization. Estuaries and Coasts 38: 800–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lucrezi, Serena, Thomas A. Schlacher, and Wayne Robinson. 2010. Can storms and shore armouring exert additive effects on sandy-beach habitats and biota? Marine and Freshwater Research 61: 951–962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mallayachari, V., and V. Sundar. 1994. Reflection characteristics of permeable seawalls. Coastal Engineering 23: 135–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Martin, Daniel, Fabio Bertasi, Marina A. Colangelo, Mindert de Vries, Matthew Frost, Stephen J. Hawkins, Enrique Macpherson, Paula S. Moschella, M. Paola Satta, and Richard C. Thompson. 2005. Ecological impact of coastal defence structures on sediment and mobile fauna: evaluating and forecasting consequences of unavoidable modifications of native habitats. Coastal Engineering 52: 1027–1051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Martins, Gustavo M., André F. Amaral, Francisco M. Wallenstein, and Ana I. Neto. 2009. Influence of a breakwater on nearby rocky intertidal community structure. Marine Environmental Research 67: 237–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McPherson, Martina L. 2009. Adaptation to sea-level rise in North Carolina. Masters Thesis, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham: North Carolina.Google Scholar
  63. Meyer, David L., Edward C. Townsend, and Gordon W. Thayer. 1997. Stabilization and erosion control value of oyster cultch for intertidal marsh. Restoration Ecology 5: 93–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Miles, J. R., Russell, P. E., and D. A. Huntley. 2001. Field measurements of sediment dynamics in front of a seawall. Journal of Coastal Research 17:(1), 195–206.Google Scholar
  65. Morley, Sarah A., Jason D. Toft, and Karrie M. Hanson. 2012. Ecological effects of shoreline armoring on intertidal habitats of a Puget Sound urban estuary. Estuaries and Coasts 35: 774–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Moschella, P. S., M. Abbiati, P. Aberg, L. Airoldi, L. M. Anderson, F. Bacchiocchi, F. Bulleri, G. E. Dinesen, M. Frost, E. Gacia, L. Granhag, P. R. Jonsson, M. P. Satta, A. Sundelof, R.C. Thompson and S. J. Hawkins. 2005. Low-crested coastal defence structures as artificial habitats for marine life: using ecological criteria in design. Coastal Engineering 52: 1053-1071.Google Scholar
  67. Munsch, Stuart H., Jeffery R. Cordell, and Jason D. Toft. 2016. Fine-scale habitat use and behavior of a nearshore fish community: nursery functions, predation avoidance, and spatiotemporal habitat partitioning. Marine Ecology Progress Series 557: 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Munsch, Stuart H., Jeffery R. Cordell, Jason D. Toft, and Erin E. Morgan. 2014. Effects of seawalls and piers on fish assemblages and juvenile salmon feeding behavior. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 34: 814–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Neumann, Barbara, Athanasios T. Vafeidis, Juliane Zimmermann, and Robert J. Nicholls. 2015. Future coastal population growth and exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding—a global assessment. PloS One 10: e0118571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nordstrom, Karl F. 2000. Beaches and dunes of developed coasts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Nordstrom, Karl F. 2014. Living with shore protection structures: a review. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 150: 11–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nordstrom, Karl F. 2016. Facilitating landform migration by removing shore protection structures: opportunities and constraints. Environmental Science & Policy. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2016.07.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. O’Connor, Mary I., Christy R. Violin, Andrea Anton, Laura M. Ladwig, and Michael F. Piehler. 2011. Salt marsh stabilization affects algal primary producers at the marsh edge. Wetlands Ecology and Management 19: 131–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Partyka, M.L., and M.S. Peterson. 2008. Habitat quality and salt-marsh species assemblages along an anthropogenic estuarine landscape. Journal of Coastal Research 1570–1581.Google Scholar
  75. Patrick, Christopher J., Donald E. Weller, Xuyong Li, and Micah Ryder. 2014. Effects of shoreline alteration and other stressors on submerged aquatic vegetation in subestuaries of Chesapeake Bay and the mid-Atlantic coastal bays. Estuaries and Coasts 37: 1516–1531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Patrick, Christopher J., Donald E. Weller, and Micah Ryder. 2016. The relationship between shoreline armoring and adjacent submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay and nearby Atlantic Coastal Bays. Estuaries and Coasts 39: 158–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Perkins, Matthew J., Terence P.T. Ng, David Dudgeon, Timothy C. Bonebrake, Kenneth M.Y. Leung. 2015. Conserving intertidal habitats: What is the potential of ecological engineering to mitigate impacts of coastal structures? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 167: 504–515.Google Scholar
  78. Peters, Joseph R., Lauren A. Yeager, and Craig A. Layman. 2015. Comparison of fish assemblages in restored and natural mangrove habitats along an urban shoreline. Bulletin of Marine Science 91: 125–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Peterson, M.S., B.H. Comyns, J.R. Hendon, P.J. Bond, and G.A. Duff. 2000. Habitat use by early life-history stages of fishes and crustaceans along a changing estuarine landscape: differences between natural and altered shoreline sites. Wetlands Ecology and Management 8: 209–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Piazza, Bryan P., Patrick D. Banks, and Megan K. La Peyre. 2005. The potential for created oyster shell reefs as a sustainable shoreline protection strategy in Louisiana. Restoration Ecology 13: 499–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Piersma, T. 2009. Threats to intertidal soft sediment ecosystems. In: Water policy in the Netherlands: integrated management in a densely populated delta, eds. Stijn Reinhard, Henk Folmer, 57–69. Resources for the Future, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  82. Pister, Benjamin. 2009. Urban marine ecology in southern California: the ability of riprap structures to serve as rocky intertidal habitat. Marine Biology 156: 861–873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pilkey, O.H., Young, R., Longo, N., and A. Coburn. 2012. Rethinking living shorelines. White paper, Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines, Western Carolina University, March 1, 2012,
  84. Powers, Sean P., Charles H. Peterson, Jonathan H. Grabowski, and Hunter S. Lenihan. 2009. Success of constructed oyster reefs in no-harvest sanctuaries: implications for restoration. Marine Ecology Progress Series 389: 159–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Reise, Karstan. 2001. Ecological comparisons of sedimentary shores. Ecological Studies Vol 151. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  86. Rippon, Stephen. 2001. The transformation of coastal wetlands: exploitation and management of marshland landscapes in North West Europe during the roman and medieval periods. London: British Academy. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  87. Rizkalla, Carol E., and Anne Savage. 2011. Impact of seawalls on loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nesting and hatching success. Journal of Coastal Research 27: 166–173.Google Scholar
  88. Rodil, Iván F., Eduardo Jaramillo, David M. Hubbard, Jenifer E. Dugan, Daniel Melnick, and Carlos Velasquez. 2015. Responses of dune plant communities to continental uplift from a major earthquake: sudden releases from coastal squeeze. PloS One 10: e0124334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rolet, Céline, Nicolas Spilmont, Dominique Davoult, Eric Goberville, and Christophe Luczak. 2015. Anthropogenic impact on macrobenthic communities and consequences for shorebirds in northern France: a complex response. Biological Conservation 184: 396–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ruggiero, Peter. 2010. Impacts of shoreline armoring on sediment dynamics. In: Puget Sound Shorelines and the Impacts of Armoring—Proceedings of a State of the Science Workshop, May 2009, eds Hugh Shipman, Megan Dethier, Guy Gelfenbaum, Kurt L Fresh, RS Dincola, 179–186. Reston, Virginia: US Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5254.Google Scholar
  91. Runyan, K., and G.B. Griggs. 2003. The effects of armoring seacliffs on the natural sand supply to the beaches of California. Journal of Coastal Research v. 19, no. 2, 336–347.Google Scholar
  92. Scyphers, Steven B., J. Steven Picou, Robert D. Brumbaugh, and Sean P. Powers. 2014. Integrating societal perspectives and values for improved stewardship of a coastal ecosystem engineer. Ecology and Society 19: 38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Scyphers, Steven B., Sean P. Powers, and Kenneth L. Heck Jr. 2015. Ecological value of submerged breakwaters for habitat enhancement on a residential scale. Environmental Management 55: 383–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Scyphers, Steven B., Sean P. Powers, Kenneth L. Heck Jr., and Dorothy Byron. 2011. Oyster reefs as natural breakwaters mitigate shoreline loss and facilitate fisheries. PloS One 6: e22396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Seitz, R.D., R.N. Lipcius, N.H. Olmstead, M.S. Seebo, and D.M. Lambert. 2006. Influence of shallow-water habitats and shoreline development on abundance, biomass, and diversity of benthic prey and predators in Chesapeake Bay. Marine Ecology Progress Series 326: 11–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Snelgrove, Paul V.R. 1999. Getting to the bottom of marine biodiversity: sedimentary habitats. Bioscience 49 (2): 129–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sobocinski, Kathryn L., Jeffery R. Cordell, and Charles A. Simenstad. 2010. Effects of shoreline modifications on supratidal macroinvertebrate fauna on Puget Sound, Washington beaches. Estuaries and Coasts 33: 699–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sturdevant, Angela, Christopher B. Craft, and John N. Sacco. 2002. Ecological functions of an impounded marsh and three natural estuarine marshes along Woodbridge River, NY/NJ Harbor. Urban Ecosystems 6: 163–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Swamy, Varun, Paul E. Fell, Misha Body, Michael B. Keaney, Mawuli K. Nyaku, Elizabeth C. Mcilvain, and Alice L. Keen. 2002. Macroinvertebrate and fish populations in a restored impounded salt marsh 21 years after the reestablishment of tidal flooding. Environmental Management 29: 516–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Swann, LaDon. 2008. The use of living shorelines to mitigate the effects of storm events on Dauphin Island, Alabama, USA.  In: Mitigating impacts of natural hazards on fishery ecosystems, ed. K. D. McLaughlin,  47-57. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda MD.Google Scholar
  101. Toft, Jason D., Jeffery R. Cordell, Charles A. Simenstad, and Lia A. Stamatiou. 2007. Fish distribution, abundance, and behavior along city shoreline types in Puget Sound. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 27: 465–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Toft, Jason D., Andrea S. Ogston, Sarah M. Heerhartz, Jeffery R. Cordell, and Emilie E. Flemer. 2013. Ecological response and physical stability of habitat enhancements along an urban armored shoreline. Ecological Engineering 57: 97–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Torre, Michael P., and Timothy E. Targett. 2016. Nekton assemblages along riprap-altered shorelines in Delaware Bay, USA: comparisons with adjacent beach. Marine Ecology Progress Series 548: 209–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tyrell, M.C., and James E. Byers. 2007. Do artificial substrates favor nonindigenous fouling species over natives? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 342: 54–60.Google Scholar
  105. Vaselli, Stefano, Fabio Bulleri, and Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi. 2008. Hard coastal-defence structures as habitats for native and exotic rocky-bottom species. Marine Environmental Research 66: 395–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Weggel, J.R. 1988. Seawalls: the need for research, dimensional considerations and a suggested classification. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 4 29–39.Google Scholar
  107. Weigel, Robert L. 2002a. Seawalls, seacliffs, beachrock: what beach effects? Part 1. Shore & Beach 70: 13–22.Google Scholar
  108. Weigel, Robert L. 2002b. Seawalls, seacliffs, beachrock: what beach effects? Part 2. Shore & Beach 70: 13–22.Google Scholar
  109. Weigel, Robert L. 2002c. Seawalls, seacliffs, beachrock: what beach effects? Part 3. Shore & Beach 70: 2–14.Google Scholar
  110. Windham-Myers, Lisamarie, Kristen Ward, Mark Marvin-DiPasquale, Jennifer L. Agee, Le H. Kieu, and Evangelos Kakouros. 2013. Biogeochemical implications of episodic impoundment in a restored tidal marsh of San Francisco Bay, California. Restoration Ecology 21: 124–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wong, Melisa C., Charles H. Peterson, and Michael F. Piehler. 2011. Evaluating estuarine habitats using secondary production as a proxy for food web support. Marine Ecology Progress Series 440: 11–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Zhu, Shutang, and Allen T. Chwang. 2001. Investigations on the reflection behaviour of a slotted seawall. Coastal Engineering 43: 93–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. E. Dugan
    • 1
  • K. A. Emery
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. Alber
    • 3
  • C. R. Alexander
    • 4
  • J. E. Byers
    • 5
  • A. M. Gehman
    • 5
  • N. McLenaghan
    • 3
  • S. E. Sojka
    • 6
  1. 1.Marine Science InstituteUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  2. 2.Department of Environmental SciencesUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Marine SciencesUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  4. 4.Skidaway Institute of OceanographyUniversity of GeorgiaSavannahUSA
  5. 5.Odum School of EcologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  6. 6.Randolph CollegeLynchburgUSA

Personalised recommendations