Upstream—Downstream Shifts in Peak Recruitment of the Native Olympia Oyster in San Francisco Bay During Wet and Dry Years
- 104 Downloads
Understanding the conditions that drive variation in recruitment of key estuarine species can be important for effective conservation and management of their populations. The Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida) is native to the Pacific coast of North America and has been a target of conservation efforts, though relatively little information on larval recruitment exists across much of its range. This study examined the recruitment of Olympia oysters at biweekly to monthly intervals at four sites in northern San Francisco Bay from 2010 to 2015 (except 2013). Mean monthly temperatures warmed at all sites during the study, while winter (January–April) mean monthly salinity decreased significantly during a wet year (2011), but otherwise remained high as a result of a drought. A recurring peak in oyster recruitment was identified in mid-estuary, in conditions corresponding to a salinity range of 25–30 and >16 °C at the time of settlement (April–November). Higher average salinities and temperatures were positively correlated with greater peak recruitment. Interannual variation in the timing of favorable conditions for recruitment at each site appears to explain geographic and temporal variation in recruitment onset. Higher winter/spring salinities and warmer temperatures at the time of recruitment corresponded with earlier recruitment onset within individual sites. Across all sites, higher winter/spring salinities were also correlated with earlier onset and earlier peak recruitment. Lower winter salinities during 2011 also resulted in a downstream shift in the location of peak recruitment.
KeywordsLarval supply Oyster Salinity Larval settlement Recruitment Estuary
This work was supported by postdoctoral fellowships to ALC from the CALFED Bay-Delta Authority (R/SF-33) and the Smithsonian Institution, the National Estuarine Research Reserve System Science Collaborative (NOAA grant no. NA09NOS4190153 to MCF), and an award under the Federal Coastal Zone Management Act, administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Office for Coastal Management to San Francisco State University for operation of the San Francisco Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The authors would like to express sincere gratitude to the Dominican University of California (San Rafael, CA) Invertebrate Zoology (BIO3150, Fall 2011) and Aquatic Ecosystems (HONO3200, Spring 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2016) classes taught by LJS for their devoted counting of oyster recruitment tiles.
ALC, SGM, and MCF obtained funding; ALC, AKD, SGM, and MCF designed the research; ALC, AKD, LJS, and MCF performed the work; ALC analyzed the data; and ALC, AKD, LJS, SGM, and MCF wrote the paper.
- Baker, P. 1995. Review of ecology and fishery of the Olympia oyster, Ostrea lurida with annotated bibliography. Journal of Shellfish Research 14: 501–518.Google Scholar
- Bates, D., Maechler, M., Bolker, B., and S. Walker. 2015. lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using Eigen and S4. R package version 1.1-8. Available at: http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lme4>.
- Bolker, B.M., B. Gardner, M. Maunder, C.W. Berg, M. Brooks, L. Comita, E. Crone, S. Cubaynes, T. Davies, P. de Valpine, J. Ford, O. Gimenez, M. Kéry, E.J. Kim, C. Lennert-Cody, A. Magnusson, S. Martell, J. Nash, A. Nielsen, J. Regetz, H. Skaug, and E. Zipkin. 2013. Strategies for fitting nonlinear ecological models in R, AD model builder, and BUGS. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 4: 501–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bonnot, P. 1937. Report on the California oyster industry for 1937. California Fish and Game, 42.Google Scholar
- Bousfield, E.L. 1955. Ecological control of the occurrence of barnacles in the Miramichi estuary. Bulletin of the National Museum of Canada 137: 1–69.Google Scholar
- Buskey, E.J., M. Bundy, M. Ferner, D. Porter, W. Reay, E. Smith, and D. Trueblood. 2015. System-wide monitoring program of the National Estuarine Research Reserve system: research and monitoring to address coastal management issues. In Coastal Ocean observing systems: advances and syntheses, ed. Y. Liu, H. Kerkering, and R.H. Weisberg, 392–414. The Netherlands: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cloern, J.E., N. Knowles, L.R. Brown, D. Cayan, M.D. Dettinger, T.L. Morgan, D.H. Schoellhamer, M.T. Stacey, M. van der Wegen, R.W. Wagner, and A.D. Jassby. 2011. Projected evolution of California’s San Francisco Bay-Delta-river system in a century of climate change. PloS One 6: e24465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Coe, W.R. 1931. Development of the organs and the sequence of the sexual phases in the California oyster (Ostrea lurida). Bulletin of Shellfish 3: 119–139.Google Scholar
- Conomos, T.J. 1979. Properties and circulation of San Francisco Bay waters. In San Francisco Bay: the urbanized estuary, ed. T.J. Conomos, 47–84. San Francisco, California: Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.Google Scholar
- Forward, R.B. Jr., and R.A. Tankersley. 2001. Selective tidal-stream transport of marine animals. In Oceanography and marine biology, ed. R.B. Gibson, M. Barnes, and R.J.A. Atkinson, 305–353. London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
- Fournier, D.A., H.J. Skaug, J. Ancheta, J. Ianelli, A. Magnusson, M.N. Maunder, A. Nielsen, and J. Sibert. 2012. AD model builder: using automatic differentiation for statistical inference of highly parameterized complex nonlinear models. Optimization Methods and Software 27: 233–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Grosholz, E., Moore, J., Zabin, C., Attoe, S. and Obernolte, R. 2007. Planning for native oyster restoration in San Francisco Bay. Final Report to California Coastal Conservancy. 40 pp.Google Scholar
- Hopkins, A.E. 1937. Experimental observations on spawning, larval development, and setting in the Olympia oyster Ostrea lurida. Bulletin of the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries 48: 438–503.Google Scholar
- National Estuarine Research Reserve System. 2015. System-wide monitoring program. Available at: http://www.nerrsdata.org/. Accessed 1 Dec 2015.
- Newman, W.A. 1953. Some ecological considerations on Barnacles of the San Francisco Bay Estuarine System. MA Thesis. University of California, Berkeley, California.Google Scholar
- Pawlik, J.R. 1992. Chemical ecology of the settlement of benthic marine invertebrates. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 30: 273–335.Google Scholar
- Prairie, J.C., K.R. Sutherland, K.J. Nickols, and A.M. Kaltenberg. 2012. Biophysical interactions in the plankton: a cross-scale review. Limnology and Oceanography: Fluids and Environments 2: 121–145.Google Scholar
- R Core Team. 2015. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Available at: http://www.r-project.org/.
- Remane, A., and C. Schlieper. 1971. Biology of brackish water. Stuttgart: Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.Google Scholar
- Roughan, M., A.J. Mace, J.L. Largier, S.G. Morgan, J.L. Fisher, and M.L. Carter. 2005. Subsurface recirculation and larval retention in the lee of a small headland: a variation on the upwelling shadow theme. Journal of Geophysical Research 110: C10027. doi:10.1029/2005JC002898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Skaug, H., Fournier, D., Bolker, B., Magnusson, A. and A. Nielsen. 2015. Generalized Linear Mixed Models using AD Model Builder. R package version 0.8.0. Available at: http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan.
- Strathmann, M.F. 1987. Reproduction and development of marine invertebrates of the northern Pacific coast: data and methods for the study of eggs, embryos, and larvae. University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
- Swain, D.L. 2015. A tale of two California droughts: lessons amidst record warmth and dryness in a region of complex physical and human geography. Geophysical Research Letters 42. doi:10.1002/2015GL066628.
- United States Geological Survey. 2015. Water quality data for San Francisco Bay. Available at: http://waterdata.usgs.gov/. Accessed 1 Dec 2015.
- Wasson, K., Zabin, C., Bible, J., Ceballos, E., Chang, A., Cheng, B., Deck, A., Grosholz, E., Latta, M. and M. Ferner. 2014. A guide to Olympia oyster restoration and conservation: environmental conditions and sites that support sustainable populations in Central California. San Francisco Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. Google Scholar