Advertisement

Estuaries and Coasts

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 662–681 | Cite as

Wetland Loss Patterns and Inundation-Productivity Relationships Prognosticate Widespread Salt Marsh Loss for Southern New England

  • Elizabeth Burke Watson
  • Cathleen Wigand
  • Earl W. Davey
  • Holly M. Andrews
  • Joseph Bishop
  • Kenneth B. Raposa
Article

Abstract

Tidal salt marsh is a key defense against, yet is especially vulnerable to, the effects of accelerated sea level rise. To determine whether salt marshes in southern New England will be stable given increasing inundation over the coming decades, we examined current loss patterns, inundation-productivity feedbacks, and sustaining processes. A multi-decadal analysis of salt marsh aerial extent using historic imagery and maps revealed that salt marsh vegetation loss is both widespread and accelerating, with vegetation loss rates over the past four decades summing to 17.3 %. Landward retreat of the marsh edge, widening and headward expansion of tidal channel networks, loss of marsh islands, and the development and enlargement of interior depressions found on the marsh platform contributed to vegetation loss. Inundation due to sea level rise is strongly suggested as a primary driver: vegetation loss rates were significantly negatively correlated with marsh elevation (r 2 = 0.96; p = 0.0038), with marshes situated below mean high water (MHW) experiencing greater declines than marshes sitting well above MHW. Growth experiments with Spartina alterniflora, the Atlantic salt marsh ecosystem dominant, across a range of elevations and inundation regimes further established that greater inundation decreases belowground biomass production of S. alterniflora and, thus, negatively impacts organic matter accumulation. These results suggest that southern New England salt marshes are already experiencing deterioration and fragmentation in response to sea level rise and may not be stable as tidal flooding increases in the future.

Keywords

Climate change Sea level rise Anthropogenic impacts Wetlands Storms Spartina alterniflora Elevation capital 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge A. Kopacsi for construction of field mesocosms. We thank the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the Barrington Land Trust, the City of Warwick, and the Nature Conservancy, among other organizations, for the access to field sites. The Narragansett Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve provided access to field sites on Prudence Island, loans of field equipment and logistical, and technical support, and we recognize D. Durant and R. Weber for their contributions. Laboratory and field assistance was provided by K. Szura, C. Esch, I. Feeney, J. Bishop, S. Kelley, M. Chintala, J. Gulak, A. Hanson, R. Johnson, and A. Fischer. Access to and analyses of historic coast survey charts were provided by C. Pesch and D. McGovern. Helpful input on manuscript drafts were provided by D. Campbell, J. Kiddon, G. Cicchetti, S. Haag, and J. Carey, and graphic assistance was provided by Patricia DeCastro. This report is tracking number ORD-013026 of the US EPA’s Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division. Although the information in this document has been funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency, it does not necessarily reflect the views of the agency and no official endorsement should be inferred. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

References

  1. Adamowicz, S.C., and C.T. Roman. 2005. New England salt marsh pools: a quantitative analysis of geomorphic and geographic features. Wetlands 25: 279–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Basso, G., K. O’Brien, M. Albino Hegeman and V. O’Neill. 2015. Status and trends of wetlands in the Long Island Sound area: 130 year assessment. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. (36 p.)Google Scholar
  3. Behrens, D.K., F.A. Bombardelli, J.L. Largier, and E. Twohy. 2009. Characterization of time and spatial scales of a migrating rivermouth. Geophysical Research Letters 36: L09402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berry, W.J., S.E. Reinert, M.E. Gallagher, S.M. Lussier, and E. Walsh. 2015. Population status of the seaside sparrow in Rhode Island: a 25-year assessment. Northeastern Naturalist 22: 658–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bertness, M.D., C.P. Brisson, M.C. Bevil, and S.M. Crotty. 2014. Herbivory drives the spread of salt marsh die-off. PloS one 9: e92916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boon, J.D. 2012. Evidence of sea level acceleration at U.S. and Canadian tide stations, Atlantic Coast, North America. Journal of Coastal Research 28: 1437–1445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Borkman, D.G., and T.J. Smayda. 1996. Long-term trends in water clarity revealed by Secchi-disk measurements in Narragansett Bay. ICES Journal of Marine Science 55: 668–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bowman, W. 2015. Tidal wetlands trends and conditions assessment, Long Island. Sound update, Newsletter of the Long Island Sound Study. Winter 2014-2015:6.Google Scholar
  9. Bromberg, K.D., and M.D. Bertness. 2005. Reconstructing New England salt marsh losses using historical maps. Estuaries 28: 823–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Browne, J.P. 2011. Impacts on Spartina alterniflora: factors affecting salt marsh edge loss. Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York at Stony Brook.Google Scholar
  11. Burton, J.G.O., and J.M. Hodgson. 1987. Lowland peats in England and Wales. Harpenden: Soil Survey of England and Wales.Google Scholar
  12. Cahoon, D.R., and G.R. Guntenspergen. 2010. Climate change, sea-level rise, and coastal wetlands. National Wetlands Newsletter 32: 8–13.Google Scholar
  13. Cameron Engineering and Associates. 2015. Long Island tidal wetland trends analysis. Report prepared for the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission. Available from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. http://www.dec.ny.gov/lands/5113.html
  14. Carey, J.C., S.B. Moran, R.P. Kelly, A.S. Kolker, and R.W. Fulweiler. 2015. The declining role of organic matter in New England salt marshes. Estuaries and Coasts. doi: 10.1007/s12237-015-9971-1.
  15. Civco, D.L., W.C. Kennard, and M.W. Lefor. 1986. Changes in Connecticut salt-marsh vegetation as revealed by historical aerial photographs and computer-assisted cartographics. Journal Environmental Management 10: 229–239.Google Scholar
  16. Cline, J.D. 1969. Spectrophotometric determination of hydrogen sulfide in natural waters. Limnology and Oceanography 14: 454–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Corman, S.S., C.T. Roman, J.W. King, and P.G. Appleby. 2012. Salt marsh mosquito-control ditches: sedimentation, landscape change, and restoration implications. Journal of Coastal Research 28: 874–880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crain, C.M., K.G. Bromberg, and M. Dionne. 2009. Tidal restrictions and mosquito ditching in New England marshes. In Human impacts on salt marshes: a global perspective, ed. B.R. Silliman, E. Grosholz, and M.D. Bertness. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  19. D’Alpaos, A., S. Lanzoni, M. Marini, and A. Rinaldo. 2010. On the tidal prism-channel area relations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 115: F01003.Google Scholar
  20. Davey, E., C. Wigand, R. Johnson, K. Sundberg, J. Morris, and C.T. Roman. 2011. Use of computed tomography imaging for quantifying coarse roots, rhizomes, peat, and particle densities in marsh soils. Ecological Applications 21: 2156–2171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Day Jr., J.W., F. Scarton, A. Rismondo, and D. Are. 1998. Rapid deterioration of a salt marsh in Venice Lagoon, Italy. Journal of Coastal Research 14: 583–590.Google Scholar
  22. Day, J.W., L.D. Britsch, S.R. Hawes, G.P. Shaffer, D.J. Reed, and D. Cahoon. 2000. Pattern and process of land loss in the Mississippi Delta: a spatial and temporal analysis of wetland habitat change. Estuaries 23: 425–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Deegan, L.A., D.S. Johnson, R.S. Warren, B.J. Peterson, J.W. Fleeger, S. Fagherazzi, and W.M. Wollheim. 2012. Coastal eutrophication as a driver of salt marsh loss. Nature 490: 388–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. DeLaune, R.D., J.A. Nyman, and W.H. Patrick Jr. 1994. Peat collapse, ponding and wetland loss in a rapidly submerging coastal marsh. Journal of Coastal Research 10: 1021–1030.Google Scholar
  25. Donnelly, J.P., and M.D. Bertness. 2001. Rapid shoreward encroachment of salt marsh cordgrass in response to accelerated sea-level rise. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98: 14218–14223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Donnelly, J.P., P. Clearly, P. Newby, P. Newby, and R. Ettinger. 2004. Coupling instrumental and geological records of sea-level change: evidence from southern New England of an increase in the rate of sea-level rise in the late 19th century. Geophysical Research Letters 31: L05203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Elmer, W.H. 2014. A tripartite interaction between Spartina alterniflora, Fusarium palustre, and the purple marsh crab (Sesarma reticulatum) contributes to sudden vegetation dieback of salt marshes in New England. Phytopathology 104: 1070–1077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Elmer, W.H., J.A. LaMondia, and F.L. Caruso. 2012. Association between Fusarium spp. on Spartina alterniflora and dieback sites in Connecticut and Massachusetts. Estuaries and Coasts 35: 436–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ezer, T., and L.P. Atkinson. 2014. Accelerated flooding along the U.S. East Coast: on the impact of sea-level rise, tides, storms, the Gulf Stream, and the North Atlantic Oscillations. Earth’s Future 2: 362–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fagherazzi, S., and P.L. Wiberg. 2009. Importance of wind conditions, fetch, and water levels on wave-generated shear stresses in shallow intertidal basins. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 114: F03022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fagherazzi, S., M.L. Kirwan, S.M. Mudd, G.R. Gentenspergen, S.T. Temmerman, A. D'Alpaos, J. Koppel, J.M. Rybczyk, E. Reyes, C. Craft, and J. Clough. 2012. Numerical models of salt marsh evolution: ecological, geomorphic, and climatic factors. Reviews of Geophysics 50: RG1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gedan, K.B., M.L. Kirwan, E. Wolanski, E.B. Barbier, and B.R. Silliman. 2011. The present and future role of coastal wetland vegetation in protecting shorelines: answering recent challenges to the paradigm. Climatic Change 106: 7–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gordon, T., and M. Bernd-Cohen. 1999. State coastal program effectiveness in protecting natural beaches, dunes, bluffs, and rocky shores. Coastal Management 27: 187–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gosselink, J.G., and R.H. Baumann. 1980. Wetland inventories: wetland loss along the U.S. coast. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementbände 34: 173–187.Google Scholar
  35. Gray, A.B., G.B. Pasternack, and E.B. Watson. 2010. Hydrogen peroxide treatment effects on the particle size distribution of alluvial and marsh sediments. The Holocene 20: 293–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Haines, A. 2011. Flora Novae Angliae: a manual for the identification of native and naturalized higher vascular plants of New England. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Halls, J.N., and L. Kraatz. 2006. Estimating error and uncertainty in change detection analyses of historical aerial photographs. In 7th International Symposium on Spatial Accuracy Assessment in Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, ed. M. Caetano and M.H. Painho, 429–438. Lisboa: Instituto Geográfico Português.Google Scholar
  38. Hapke, C.J., E.A. Himmelstoss, M. Kratzmann, J.H. List, and E.R. Thiele. 2010, National assessment of shoreline change: historical shoreline change along the New England and Mid-Atlantic coasts: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010-1118, 57p.Google Scholar
  39. Hartig, E.K., V. Gornitz, A.S., F. Mushacke, and D. Fallon. 2002. Anthropogenic and climate-change impacts on salt marshes of Jamaica Bay, New York City. Wetlands 22: 71-89.Google Scholar
  40. Heiri, O., A.F. Lotter, and G. Lemcke. 2001. Loss on ignition as a method for estimating organic and carbonate content in sediments: reproducibility and comparability of results. Journal of Paleolimnology 25: 101–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hughes, R.G., and O.A.L. Paramor. 2004. On the loss of saltmarshes in south-east England and methods for their restoration. Journal of Applied Ecology 41: 440–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. James-Pirri, M.J., R.M. Erwin, D.J. Prosser, and J.D. Taylor. 2012. Responses of salt marsh ecosystems to mosquito control management practices along the Atlantic Coast (USA). Restoration Ecology 20: 395–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kearney, M.S., R.E. Grace, and J.C. Stevenson. 1988. Marsh loss in Nanticoke Estuary, Chesapeake Bay. Geographical Review 78: 205–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kearney, M.S., A.S. Rogers, J.R. Townshend, E. Rizzo, D. Stutzer, J.C. Stevenson, and K. Sundberg. 2002. Landsat imagery shows decline of coastal marshes in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. EOS 83: 173–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kennish, M.J. 2001. Coastal salt marsh systems in the US: a review of anthropogenic impacts. Journal of Coastal Research 17: 731–748.Google Scholar
  46. Kirwan, M.L., and G.R. Guntenspergen. 2012. Feedbacks between inundation, root production, and shoot growth in a rapidly submerging brackish marsh. Journal of Ecology 100: 764–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kirwan, M.L., and A.B. Murray. 2007. A coupled geomorphic and ecological model of tidal marsh evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 6118–6122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kirwan, M.L., G.R. Guntenspergen, A. D’Alpaos, J.T. Morris, S.M. Mudd, and S. Temmerman. 2010. Limits on the adaptability of coastal marshes to rising sea level. Geophysical Research Letters 37: L23401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kirwan, M.L., A.B. Murray, J.P. Donnelly, and D.R. Corbett. 2011. Rapid wetland expansion during European settlement and its implication for marsh survival under modern sediment delivery rates. Geology 39: 507–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Koch, M.S., I.A. Mendelssohn, and K.L. McKee. 1990. Mechanism for the hydrogen sulfide-induced growth limitation in wetland macrophytes. Limnology and Oceanography 35: 399–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Leatherman, S.P., and J.R. Allen. 1985. Geomorphic analysis of South Shore of Long Island barriers. New York: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 350 pp.Google Scholar
  52. Lee, V., and S. Olsen. 1985. Eutrophication and management initiatives for the control of nutrient inputs to Rhode Island coastal lagoons. Estuaries 8: 191–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mariotti, G.S., S. Fagherazzi, P.L. Wiberg, K.J. McGlathery, L. Carniello, and A. Defina. 2010. Influence of storm surges and sea level on shallow tidal basin erosive processes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 115: C11012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McLoughlin, S.M., P.L. Wiberg, I. Safak, and K.J. McGlathery. 2015. Rates and forcing of marsh edge erosion in a shallow coastal bay. Estuaries and Coasts 38: 620–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Möller, I., T. Spencer, J.R. French, D.J. Leggett, and M. Dixon. 1999. Wave transformation over salt marshes: a field and numerical modeling study from North Norfolk, England. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 49: 411–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Morris, J.T. 2007. Ecological engineering in intertidial saltmarshes. Hydrobiologia 577: 161–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Morris, J.T., P.V. Sundareshwar, C.T. Nietch, B. Kjerfve, and D.R. Cahoon. 2002. Responses of coastal wetlands to rising sea level 83: 2869-2877.Google Scholar
  58. Morris, J.T., K. Sundberg, and C.S. Hopkinson. 2013. Salt marsh primary production and its responses to relative sea level and nutrients in estuaries at Plum Island, Massachusetts, and North Inlet. Oceanography 26: 78–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Morton, R.M. 1972. Spatial and temporal distribution of suspended sediment in Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound. Geological Society of America Memoirs 133: 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA]. 2003. Computational techniques for tidal datums. NOAA Special Publication NOS CO-OPS 2. Silver Spring, MD: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services. http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/publications/Computational_Techniques_for_Tidal_Datums_handbook.pdf
  61. Nestlerode, J.A., V.D. Hansen, A. Teague, and M.C. Harwell. 2014. Application of a three-tier framework to assess ecological condition of Gulf of Mexico coastal wetlands. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 186: 3477–3493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. New York Department of Environmental Conservation [NYDEC] 2012. Nassau and Suffolk counties: trends in wetland loss. http://www.dec.ny.gov/lands/31989.html
  63. Nicholls, R.J., P.P. Wong, V.R. Burkett, J.O. Codignotto, J.E. Hay, R.F. McLean, S. Ragoonaden, and C.D. Woodroffe. 2007. Coastal systems and low lying areas. In Climate Change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, et al., 315–356. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Nixon, S.W. 1982. The ecology of New England high salt marshes: a community profile. No. FWS/OBS-81/55. Washington DC: National Coastal Ecosystems Team, and Kingston, RI (USA): Washington, DC (USA); Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island.Google Scholar
  65. Nixon, S.W., and C.A. Oviatt. 1973. Ecology of a New England salt marsh. Ecological Monographs 43: 463–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nyman, J.A., R.D. DeLaune, and W.H. Patrick Jr. 1990. Wetland soil formation in the rapidly subsiding Mississippi River deltaic plan: mineral and organic matter relationships. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 31: 57–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Orr, M., S. Crooks, and P.B. Williams. 2003. Will restored tidal marshes be sustainable? San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Sciences 1. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8hj3d20t
  68. Orson, R., W. Panageotou, and S.P. Leatherman. 1985. Response of tidal salt marshes of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts to rising sea levels. Journal of Coastal Research 1: 29–37.Google Scholar
  69. Pasternack, G.B., G.S. Brush, and W.B. Hilgartner. 2001. Impact of historic land-use change on sediment delivery to a Chesapeake Bay subestuarine delta. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 26: 409–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Phillips, J.D. 1986. Coastal submergence and marsh fringe erosion. Journal of Coastal Research 2: 427–436.Google Scholar
  71. Rahmstorf, S. 2007. A semi-empirical approach to projecting future sea-level rise. Science 315: 368–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Raposa, K.B. 2009. Ecological geography of the NBNERR. In An ecological profile of the Narrangansett Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, K.B. Raposa and M.L. Schwartz (eds).Google Scholar
  73. Robinson, C., N. Herold, and J. Carter. 2015. An object-based image analysis approach for mapping salt marsh habitats in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Presented at the Society of Wetland Scientists Annual Meeting, May 31-June 4, Providence, RI.Google Scholar
  74. Roman, C.T., N. Jaworski, F.T. Short, S. Findlay, and R.S. Warren. 2000. Estuaries of the northeastern United States: habitat and land use signatures. Estuaries 23(6): 743-764.Google Scholar
  75. Rozsa, R. 1995. Human impacts on tidal wetlands: history and regulations. In Tidal marshes of Long Island Sound: ecology, history, and restoration, ed. G.D. Dreyer and W.A. Niering, 42–50. New London: Connecticut College Arboretum.Google Scholar
  76. Sallenger, A.H., K.S. Doran, and P.A. Howd. 2012. Hotspot of accelerated sea-level rise on the Atlantic Coast of North America. Nature Climate Change 2: 884–888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schwimmer, R.A. 2001. Rates and processes of marsh shoreline erosion in Rehoboth Bay, Delaware, USA. Journal of Coastal Research 17: 672–683.Google Scholar
  78. Seiple, W., and M. Salmon. 1982. Comparative social behavior of two grapsid crabs, Sesarma reticulatum (Say), and S. cinereum (Bosc). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 62: 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Smith, S.M. 2009. Multi-decadal changes in salt marshes of Cape Cod, MA: photographic analyses of vegetation loss, species shifts, and geomorphic change. Northeastern Naturalist 16: 183–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Stefanon, L., L. Carniello, A. D’Alpaos, and A. Rinaldo. 2012. Signatures of sea level changes on tidal geomorphology: experiments on network incision and retreat. Geophysical Research Letters 39: L12402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P.M. Midgley. 2013. Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Working Group I Contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Stocker, J., and K. O’Brien, J. Barrett. 2014. Analysis of shoreline erosion in Connecticut: 100 years of erosion and accretion. University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
  83. Stralberg, D., M. Brennan, J.C. Callaway, J.K. Wood, L.M. Schile, D. Jongsomjit, M. Kelly, V.T. Parker, and S. Crooks. 2011. Evaluating tidal marsh sustainability in the face of sea-level rise: a hybrid modeling approach applied in San Francisco Bay. PLoS One 6: e27388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Strickland, J.D.H., and T.R. Parsons. 1972. A practical handbook of seawater analysis. Ottawa: Fisheries Research Board of Canada.Google Scholar
  85. Swanson, R.L. 1974. Variability of tidal datums and accuracy in determining datums from short series of observations, NOAA Technical Report NOS 64. Silver Spring: National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration.Google Scholar
  86. Swanson, R.L., and R.E. Wilson. 2008. Increased tidal ranges coinciding with Jamaica Bay development contribute to marsh flooding. Journal of Coastal Research 24: 1565–1569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Temmerman, S., G. Govers, S. Wartel, and P. Meire. 2004. Modeling estuarine variations in tidal marsh sedimentation: response to changing sea level and suspended sediment concentrations. Marine Geology 212: 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Temmerman, S., M.B. De Vries, and T.J. Bouma. 2012. Coastal marsh die-off and attenuation of floods. Global and Planetary Change 92–93: 267–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tiner, R.W., K. McGuckin, and J. Herman. 2014. Rhode Island wetlands: updated inventory, characterization, and landscape-level functional assessment. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Northeast Region, Hadley, MA. 63 pp.Google Scholar
  90. Titus, J.G. 1988. Sea level rise and wetland loss: an overview. In Greenhouse effect, sea level rise and coastal wetlands, ed J.G. Titus, 1-35. Washington D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  91. Turner, R.E., E.M. Swenson, and C.S. Milan. 2000. Organic and inorganic contributions to vertical accretion in salt marsh sediments. In Concepts and controversies in tidal marsh ecology, ed. M.P. Weinstein and D.A. Kreeger, 583–595. Springer: Netherlands.Google Scholar
  92. Van Dyke, E., and K. Wasson. 2005. Historical ecology of a central California estuary. Estuaries and Coasts 28: 173–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Voss, C.M., R.R. Christian, and J.T. Morris. 2013. Marsh macrophyte responses to inundation anticipate impacts of sea-level rise and indicate ongoing drowning of North Carolina marshes. Marine Biology 160: 181–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wamsley, T.V., M.A. Cialone, J.M. Smith, J.H. Atkinson, and J.D. Rosati. 2010. The potential of wetlands in reducing storm surge. Ocean Engineering 37: 59–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Watson, E.B., and R. Byrne. 2013. Late Holocene marsh expansion in southern San Francisco Bay, California. Estuaries and Coasts 36: 643–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Watson, E.B., A.J. Oczkowski, C. Wigand, A.R. Hanson, E.W. Davey, S.C. Crosby, R.L. Johnson, and H.M. Andrews. 2014. Nutrient enrichment and precipitation changes do not enhance resiliency of salt marshes to sea level rise in the Northeastern U.S. Climatic Change 125: 501–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Weston, N. 2014. Declining sediments and rising seas: an unfortunate convergence for tidal wetlands. Estuaries and Coasts 37: 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wigand, C., R. Comeleo, R. McKinney, G. Thursby, M. Chintala, and M. Charpentier. 1999. Outline of a new approach to evaluate ecological integrity of salt marshes. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal 5: 1541–1554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wigand, C., P. Brennan, M. Stolt, M. Holt, and S. Ryba. 2009. Soil respiration rates in coastal marshes subject to increasing watershed nitrogen loads in southern New England, USA. Wetlands 29: 952–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wigand, C., R. McKinney, M. Chintala, S. Lussier, and J. Heltshe. 2010. Development of a reference coastal wetland set in southern New England (USA). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 161: 583–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wigand, C., C.T. Roman, E. Davey, M. Stolt, R. Johnson, A. Hanson, E.B. Watson, S.B. Moran, D.R. Cahoon, J.C. Lynch, and P. Rafferty. 2014. Below the disappearing marshes of an urban estuary: historic nitrogen trends and soil structure. Ecological Applications 24: 633–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wigand, C., T. Ardito, C. Chaffee, W. Ferguson, S. Paton, K. Raposa, C. Vandemoer, and E.B. Watson. 2015. A climate change adaptation strategy for management of coastal marsh systems. Estuaries and Coasts. doi: 10.1007/s12237-0003-y.
  103. Wilson, C.A., Z.J. Hughes, D.M. FitzGerald, C.S. Hopkinson, V. Valentine, and A.S. Kolker. 2014. Saltmarsh pool and tidal creek morphodynamics: dynamic equilibrium of northern latitude saltmarshes? Geomorphology 213: 99–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation (outside the USA) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth Burke Watson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Cathleen Wigand
    • 1
  • Earl W. Davey
    • 1
  • Holly M. Andrews
    • 1
    • 3
  • Joseph Bishop
    • 1
  • Kenneth B. Raposa
    • 4
  1. 1.Atlantic Ecology DivisionORD-NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyNarragansettUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biodiversity, Earth & Environmental SciencesAcademy of Natural Sciences of Drexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Biology DepartmentUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA
  4. 4.Narrangansett Bay National Estuarine Research ReservePrudence IslandUSA

Personalised recommendations