Estuaries and Coasts

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 118–131 | Cite as

On the Flushing of Tampa Bay

  • Jun Zhu
  • Robert H. Weisberg
  • Lianyuan Zheng
  • Shuzong Han
Article

Abstract

A high-resolution, three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model is used to estimate the bulk residence time distributions for the entirety of Tampa Bay and for five of its sub-regions using an Eulerian passive tracer technique. With a resolution as high as 20 m, the model domain includes all of the important mass conveyances by the channels and inlets, plus the impediments to flow by bridge causeways and natural constrictions. The non-tidal circulation is found to be the primary agent for the flushing of Tampa Bay. Tides alone have a minor effect. Exceptions pertain to within a tidal excursion from the mouth of the bay and sub-regions with multiple inlets, where differential flows related to tidal phase differences aid in flushing. By resolving the main shipping channels, we also address the effect of channel deepening and widening on the flushing of Tampa Bay. Bulk residence time is found to decrease due to an increase in the non-tidal circulation.

Keywords

Estuary flushing Residence time Passive tracer Channel alteration effects Tampa Bay 

References

  1. Aikman, F., and L.W.J. Lanerolle. 2005. Report on the NOS workshop on residence/flushing times in bays and estuaries, NOAA technical report NOS CS 20. Maryland: Silver Spring.Google Scholar
  2. Arega, F., S. Armstrong, and A.W. Badr. 2008. Modeling of residence time in the East Scott Creek Estuary, South Carolina, USA. Journal of Hydro-environment Research 2: 99–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Basu, B.K., and F.R. Pick. 1996. Factors regulating phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass in temperate rivers. Limnology and Oceanography 41: 1572–1577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burchard, H., and R.D. Hetland. 2010. Quantifying the contributions of tidal straining and gravitational circulation to residual circulation in periodically stratified tidal estuaries. Journal of Physical Oceanography 40: 1243–1262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burwell, D., M. Vincent, M. Luther, and B. Galperin. 2000. Modeling residence times: Eulerian vs Lagrangian. In Estuarine and coastal modeling, ed. M.L. Spaulding and H.L. Butler, 995–1009. Reston: American Society of Civil Engineers.Google Scholar
  6. Chen, C.S., G. Cowles, and R.C. Beardsley. 2004. An unstructured grid, finite-volume coastal ocean model: FVCOM User Manual. SMAST/UMASSD Technical Report-04-0601, 183 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Chen, C.S., H. Liu, and R.C. Beardsley. 2003. An unstructured, finite-volume, three-dimensional, primitive equation ocean model: application to coastal ocean and estuaries. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 20: 159–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen, C.S., Q. Xu, R. Houghton, and R.C. Beardsley. 2008. A model-dye comparison experiment in the tidal mixing front zone on the southern flank of Georges bank. Journal of Geophysical Research 113, C02005.Google Scholar
  9. Choi, K.W., and J.H.W. Lee. 2004. Numerical determination of flushing time for stratified water bodies. Journal of Marine Systems 50: 263–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dyer, K.R. 1973. Estuaries: a physical introduction. ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Egbert, G.D., and S.Y. Erofeeva. 2002. Efficient inverse modeling of barotropic ocean tides. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 19: 183–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Galperin, B., A.F. Blumberg, and R.H. Weisberg. 1991a. A time-dependent three-dimensional model of circulation in Tampa Bay. In Proceedings of the Tampa Bay Area Scientific Information Symposium, vol. 2, ed. S. Treat and P. Clark, 77–97. Florida: Tampa.Google Scholar
  13. Galperin, B., A.F. Blumberg, and R.H. Weisberg. 1991b. The importance of density driven circulation in well mixed estuaries: The Tampa Bay experience. In Estuarine and coastal modeling, ed. M.L. Spaulding and A. Blumberg, 332–343. Tampa: American Society of Civil Engineers.Google Scholar
  14. Goodwin, C. R. 1980. Preliminary simulated tidal flow and circulation patterns in Hillsborough Bay, Florida. U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 80–1021, 25 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Goodwin, C. R. 1987. Tidal-flow, circulation, and flushing changes caused by dredge and fill in Tampa Bay, Florida. U. S. Geological Survey, Water-Supply Paper, 2282, 88 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Goodwin, C.R. 1989. Circulation of Tampa and Sarasota bays. In NOAA estuary-of-the month, Vol. 11, Proceedings of a seminar, 49–64. Washington: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.Google Scholar
  17. Hagy, J.D., L.P. Sanford, and W.R. Boynton. 2000. Estimation of net physical transport and hydraulic residence times for a coastal plain estuary using box models. Estuaries 23: 328–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hansen, D.V., and M. Rattray Jr. 1966. New dimensions in estuary classification. Limnology and Oceanography 11: 319–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Havens, H., M.E. Luther, S.D. Meyers, and C.A. Heil. 2010. Lagrangian particle tracking of a toxic dinoflagellate bloom within the Tampa Bay estuary. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60: 2233–2241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hess, K. 2001. Generation of tidal datum fields for Tampa Bay and the New York Bight. NOAA Technical Report NOS CS 11, 43 pp., National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland.Google Scholar
  21. Hu, C., F.E. Muller-Karger, and P.W. Swarzenski. 2006. Hurricanes, submarine groundwater discharge, and Florida’s red tides. Geophysical Research Letters 33: L11601. doi:10.1029/2005GL025449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Huang, W., and M. Spaulding. 2002. Modeling residence-time response to freshwater input in Apalachicola Bay, Florida, USA. Hydrological Processes 16: 3051–3064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ketchum, B.H., and A.M. Rawn. 1951. The flushing of tidal estuaries. Sewage and Industrial Wastes 23: 198–209.Google Scholar
  24. Lewis, R.R., and E. Estevez. 1988. Ecology of Tampa Bay, Florida, an estuarine profile. Washington: U. S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Research Center.Google Scholar
  25. Mellor, G.L., and T. Yamada. 1982. Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problem. Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics 20: 851–875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Meyers, S.D., and M.E. Luther. 2008. A numerical simulation of residual circulation in Tampa Bay. Part II: Lagrangian residence time. Estuaries and Coasts 31: 815–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Meyers, S.D., M.E. Luther, M. Wilson, H. Havens, A. Linville, and K. Sopkin. 2007. A numerical simulation of residual circulation in Tampa Bay. Part I: low-frequency temporal variations. Estuaries and Coasts 30: 679–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Miller, R.L., and B.F. McPherson. 1991. Estimating estuarine flushing and residence times in charlotte harbor, Florida, via salt balance and a box model. Limnology and Oceanography 36: 602–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Monsen, N.E., J.E. Cloern, L.V. Lucas, and S.G. Monismith. 2002. A comment on the use of flushing time, residence time, and age as transport time scales. Limnology and Oceanography 47: 1545–1553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Officer, C.B. 1976. Physical Oceanography of Estuaries (and Associated Coastal Waters). 465 pp., John Wiley, Hoboken, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  31. Officer, C.B. 1980. Box models revisited. In Estuarine and wetland processes, ed. P. Hamilton and K. MacDonald, 65–114. New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Oliveira, A., and A.M. Baptista. 1997. Diagnostic modeling of residence times in estuaries. Water Resources Research 33: 1935–1946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Proffitt, C.E., and S.E. Travis. 2005. Albino mutation rates in red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle L.) as a bioassay of contamination history in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA. Wetlands 25: 326–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sanford, L.P., W.C. Boicourt, and S.R. Rives. 1992. Model for estimating tidal flushing of small embayments. Journal of Waterways, Ports, Coastal and Ocean Engineering 118: 635–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sheldon, J.E., and M. Alber. 2002. A comparison of residence time calculations using simple compartment models of the Altamaha River Estuary, Georgia. Estuaries 25: 1304–1317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Simpson, J.H., J. Brown, J. Matthews, and G. Allen. 1990. Tidal straining, density currents, and stirring in the control of estuarine stratification. Estuaries 13: 125–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Smagorinsky, J. 1963. General circulation experiments with the primitive equations, I. The basic experiment. Monthly Weather Review 91: 99–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Socolofsky, S.A., and G.H. Jirka. 2005. Special Topics in Mixing and Transport Processes in the Environment, Engineering—lectures, fifth ed., Coastal and Ocean Engineering Division, Texas A&M University.Google Scholar
  39. Vincent, M., D. Burwell, and M. Luther. 2000. The Tampa Bay nowcast-forecast system. In Estuarine and coastal modeling, ed. M.L. Spaulding and H.L. Butler, 765–780. Reston: American Society of Civil Engineers.Google Scholar
  40. Warner, J.C., W.R. Geyer, and H.G. Arango. 2010. Using a composite grid approach in a complex coastal domain to estimate estuarine residence time. Computers and Geosciences 36: 921–935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Weisberg, R.H. 2011. Coastal ocean pollution, water quality, and ecology. Marine Technology Society Journal 45: 35–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Weisberg, R.H., A. Barth, A. Alvera-Azcárate, and L.Y. Zheng. 2009. A coordinated coastal ocean observing and modeling system for the West Florida Shelf. Harmful Algae 8: 585–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Weisberg, R.H., and R.G. Williams. 1991. Initial findings on the circulation of Tampa Bay. In Proceedings of Tampa Bay area scientific information symposium, Vol. 2, Edited by S. Treat and P. Clark, 49–66. Florida: Tampa.Google Scholar
  44. Weisberg, R.H., and L.Y. Zheng. 2003. How estuaries work: a Charlotte Harbor example. Journal of Marine Research 61: 635–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Weisberg, R.H., and L.Y. Zheng. 2006. Circulation of Tampa Bay driven by buoyancy, tides, and winds, as simulated using a finite volume coastal ocean model. Journal of Geophysical Research 111, C01005.Google Scholar
  46. Yuan, D., B. Lin, and R.A. Falconer. 2007. A modeling study of residence time in a macro-tidal estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 71: 401–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zervas, C.E. (Ed.). 1993. Tampa Bay oceanography project: physical oceanographic synthesis, NOAA Technical Report, NOS OES 002, 184 pp.Google Scholar
  48. Zhang, W.G., J.L. Wilkin, and O.M.E. Schofield. 2010. Simulation of water age and residence time in New York Bight. Journal of Physical Oceanography 40: 965–982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zheng, L.Y., and R.H. Weisberg. 2012. Modeling the west Florida coastal ocean by downscaling from the deep ocean, across the continental shelf and into the estuaries. Ocean Modelling 48: 10–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zhu, J., R.H. Weisberg, L.Y. Zheng, and S.Z. Han. 2013. Influences of channel deepening and widening on the tidal and non-tidal circulation of Tampa Bay. Estuaries and Coasts (in press). Google Scholar
  51. Zimmerman, J.T.F. 1988. Estuarine residence times. In Hydrodynamics of Estuaries, Zimmerman, J.T.F, vol. 1, ed. B. Kjerfve, 75–84. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jun Zhu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Robert H. Weisberg
    • 2
  • Lianyuan Zheng
    • 2
  • Shuzong Han
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Physical and Environmental OceanographyOcean University of ChinaQingdaoChina
  2. 2.College of Marine ScienceUniversity of South FloridaSt. PetersburgUSA

Personalised recommendations