Advertisement

Estuaries and Coasts

, Volume 37, Issue 6, pp 1490–1505 | Cite as

Integrating Successional Ecology and the Delta Lobe Cycle in Wetland Research and Restoration

  • J. A. NymanEmail author
Article

Abstract

Inactive deltas are more extensive than active deltas in most deltaic landscapes; thus, the subsurface generally is dominated by mineral sediments that rapidly accreted at different times, whereas the landscape at any one time generally is dominated by ephemeral emergent wetlands that are slowly accreting via vegetative growth. Subsidence is slow enough in most deltas that emergent wetlands, although ephemeral, can persist for millennia but accelerating global sea level rise probably will slow wetland creation in active deltas and accelerate the loss of existing wetlands in inactive deltas this century worldwide. A recent publication created confusion regarding the effects of river management on coastal Louisiana, where spatially variable subsidence is great enough in some areas to mimic extremely rapid sea level rise. I show how integrating Successional Ecology with the Delta Lobe Cycle, and correcting some omissions and errors in recent publications, clarifies the effects of river management in coastal Louisiana and provides a framework for predicting deltaic landscape dynamics worldwide. Successional Ecology provides a framework for understanding changes in natural and managed environments worldwide, whereas the Delta Lobe Cycle provides a framework for understanding river-dominated deltas worldwide. Sediment diversions are a form of river management that removes artificial barriers to river flow and are designed to mimic hydrologic conditions during the active delta stage of the Delta Lobe Cycle by focusing rapid mineral sedimentation in open water and thus creating new emergent wetlands. Freshwater diversions are another form of river management that also removes artificial barriers to river flow but are designed to mimic hydrologic conditions during the inactive stages of the Delta Lobe Cycle by reducing salinity stress over large areas of emergent wetlands and thus promoting marsh vertical accretion via vegetative growth. The Delta Lobe Cycle and both types of river diversions also create salinity gradients that simultaneously increase the sensitivity of emergent wetlands to disturbance while increasing the ability of emergent wetlands to recover from disturbance. Freshwater diversions only slow the loss of existing wetlands because the natural Delta Lobe Cycle, artificial channels that increase salinity stress, artificial ridges that increase flooding stress, and repeated disturbances eventually will cause vertical accretion via vegetative growth to become inadequate. Formally integrating these concepts might advance research and restoration in deltaic landscapes worldwide especially in the majority of deltas where inactive deltas are more extensive than active deltas.

Keywords

Wetland Delta Delta Lobe Cycle Disturbance Succession Restoration Diversion Louisiana 

Notes

Acknowledgments

R. Keim and anonymous reviewers provided constructive criticism to earlier drafts of this manuscript. This work was partially supported by McIntire-Stennis Project number LAB 94095 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

References

  1. Alisauskas, R., C.D. Ankney, and E.E. Klaas. 1988. Winter diets and nutrition of midcontinental lesser snow geese. Journal of Wildlife Management 52: 403–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anisfeld, S.C., and T.D. Hill. 2012. Fertilization effects on elevation change and belowground carbon balance in a Long Island Sound tidal marsh. Estuaries and Coasts 35: 201–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, A., T. Henkel, J. Lopez, and E. Boyd. 2011. Geomorphology and bald cypress restoration of the Caernarvon Delta near the Caernarvon Diversion, Southeast Louisiana. Lake Pontchartrain Basin Foundation, Metarie, Louisiana. http://www.saveourlake.org/PDF-documents/our-coast/Caernarvon/LPBF%20Caernarvon%20Delta%20Report%202011%20-FINAL.pdf. Accessed 19 May 2013.
  4. Barras, J.A. 2009. Land area change and overview of major hurricane impacts in coastal Louisiana, 2004-08: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3080, scale 1:250,000, 6 p. pamphlet. http://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3080/.
  5. Berry, P.M., M. Sterling, J.H. Spink, C.J. Baker, R. Sylvester-Bradley, S.J. Mooney, A.R. Tams, and A.R. Ennos. 2004. Understanding and reducing lodging in cereals. Advances in Agronomy 84: 217–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blum, M.D., and H.H. Roberts. 2012. The Mississippi Delta Region: past, present, and future. Annual Reviews in Earth and Planetary Sciences 40: 655–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boyer, M.E., J.O. Harris, and R.E. Turner. 1997. Constructed crevasses and land gain in the Mississippi River delta. Restoration Ecology 5: 85–92. doi: 10.1046/j.1526-100X.1997.09709.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brand, L.A., L.M. Smith, J.Y. Takekawa, N.D. Athearn, K. Taylor, G.G. Shellenbarager, D.H. Schoellhamer, and R. Spenst. 2012. Trajectory of early tidal marsh restoration: elevation, sedimentation and colonization of breached salt ponds in the northern San Francisco Bay. Ecological Engineering 42: 19–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cahoon, D.R., D.J. Reed, and J.W. Day Jr. 1995. Estimating shallow subsidence in microtidal salt marshes of the southeastern United States: Kaye and Barghoorn revisited. Marine Geology 128: 1–9. doi: 10.1016/0025-3227(95)00087-F.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cahoon, D.R., D.A. White, and J.C. Lynch. 2011. Sediment infilling and wetland formation dynamics in an active crevasse splay of the Mississippi River delta. Geomorphology 131: 57–68. doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.12.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carle, M.V. 2011. Estimating wetland losses and gains in coastal North Carolina: 1994-2001. Wetlands 31: 1275–1285. doi: 10.1007/s13157-011-0242-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chabreck, R.H., and J.A. Nyman. 2005. Management of coastal wetlands. In Techniques for wildlife investigations and management, 6th ed, ed. C.E. Braun, 839–860. Bethesda: The Wildlife Society.Google Scholar
  13. Chabreck, R.H., and A.W. Palmisano. 1973. The effects of Hurricane Camille on the marshes of the Mississippi River Delta. Ecology 54: 1118–1123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen, B., W. Yu, W. Liu, and Z. Liu. 2012. An assessment on restoration of typical marine ecosystems in China—achievements and lessons. Ocean and Coastal Management 57: 53–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coleman, J.M. 1972. Deltas: process of deposition and models for exploration, 2nd ed. Minneapolis: Burgess.Google Scholar
  16. Coleman, J. M. 1988. Dynamic changes and the processes in the Mississippi river delta. Geological Society of America Bulletin 100:999-1015. doi: 10.1130/0016-7606(1988)100<0999:DCAPIT>2.3.CO;2.
  17. Coleman, J.M., O.K. Huh, and D. Braud Jr. 2008. Wetland loss in world deltas. Journal of Coastal Research 24(sp1): 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Conner, R., and G.L. Chmura. 2000. Dynamics of above- and belowground organic matter in a high latitude macrotidal saltmarsh. Marine Ecology Progress Series 204: 101–110. doi: 10.3354/meps204101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Couvillion, B. R., Barras, J. A., Steyer, G. D., W. Sleavin, M. Fischer, H. Beck, N. Trahan, G. Brad, and D. Heckman. 2011. Land area change in coastal Louisiana from 1932 to 2010: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3164, scale 1:265,000, 12 p. pamphlet. http://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3164/. Accessed 18 Oct 2013.
  20. Craft, C. 2007. Freshwater input structures soil properties, vertical accretion, and nutrient accumulation of Georgia and U.S. tidal marshes. Limnology and Oceanography 52: 1220–1230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Craft, C.B., J. Vymazal, and C.J. Richardson. 1995. Response of everglades plant communities to nitrogen and phosphorus additions. Wetlands 15: 258–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Daoust, R.J., and D.L. Childers. 2004. Ecological effects of low-level phosphorus additions on two plant communities in a neotropical freshwater wetland ecosystem. Oecologia 141: 672–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Darby, F.A., and R.E. Turner. 2008a. Effects of eutrophication on salt marsh root and rhizome biomass accumulation. Marine Ecology Progress Series 363: 63–70. doi: 10.3354/meps07423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Darby, F.A., and R.E. Turner. 2008b. Below- and aboveground biomass of Spartina alterniflora: response to nutrient addition in a Louisiana salt marsh. Estuaries and Coasts 31: 326–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Day, J.W., J.E. Cable, J.H. Cowan Jr., R. DeLaune, K. de Mutsert, B. Fry, H. Mashriqui, D. Justic, P. Kemp, R.R. Lane, J. Rick, S. Rick, L.P. Rosas, G. Snedden, E. Swenson, R.R. Twilley, and B. Wissel. 2009. The impacts of pulsed reintroduction of river water on a Mississippi Delta coastal basin. Journal of Coastal Research 54: 225–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. DeLaune, R.D. 1986. The use of d13C signature of C-3 and C-4 plants in determining past depositional environments in rapidly accreting marshes of the Mississippi River deltaic plain, Louisiana, USA. Chemical Geoogy: Isotop Geosciene Section: 59-315-320.Google Scholar
  27. DeLaune, R.D., and S.R. Pezeshki. 1988. Relationship of mineral nutrients to growth of Spartina alterniflora in Louisiana salt marshes. Northeast Gulf Science 10: 195–204.Google Scholar
  28. DeLaune, R.D., J.A. Nyman, and W.H. Patrick Jr. 1994. Peat collapse, ponding, and wetland loss in a rapidly submerging coastal marsh. Journal of Coastal Research 10: 1021–1030.Google Scholar
  29. DeLaune, R.D., S.R. Pezeshki, and J. Jugsujinda. 2005. Impact of Mississippi River freshwater reintroduction on Spartina patens marshes: responses to nutrient input and lowering of salinity. Wetlands 25: 155–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Drew, M.C. 1975. Comparison of the effects of a localized supply of phosphate, nitrate, ammonium, and potassium on the growth of the seminal roots system, and the shoot, in barley. New Phytologist 75: 479–490. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.1975.tb01409.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Erwin, R.M., D.R. Cahoon, J.J. Prosser, G.M. Sanders, and P. Hensel. 2006. Surface elevation dynamics in vegetated Spartina marshes versus unvegetated tidal ponds along the mid-Atlantic coast, USA, with implications to waterbirds. Estuaries and Coasts 29: 96–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Feller, I.C. 1995. Effects of nutrient enrichment on growth and herbivory by dwarf red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). Ecological Monographs 65: 477–505. doi: 10.1007/BF02394126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fox, L.I., Valiela, and E.L. Kinney. 2012. Vegetation cover and elevation in long-term experimental nutrient-enrichment plots in Great Sippewisett Salt Marsh, Cape Cod, Massachusetts: implications for eutrophication and sea level rise. Estuaries and Coasts 35: 445–458. doi: 10.1007/s12237-012-9479-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gossman, B. 2009. 2009 Operations, maintenance, and monitoring report for the Delta Wide Crevasses (MR-09) Project, Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority of Louisiana, Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration, New Orleans, Louisiana. 21 pp. http://lacoast.gov/new/Projects/Info.aspx?num=MR-09. Accessed 18 Oct 2011
  35. Hodge, A. 2003. The plastic plant: root response to heterogenous supplies of nutrients. New Phytologist 162: 9–24. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01015.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Howes, N.C., D.M. FitzGerald, Z.J. Huges, I.Y. Georgiou, M.A. Kulp, M.D. Miner, J.M. Smith, and J.A. Barras. 2010. Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:14014–14019.Google Scholar
  37. Huang, H.D., R.R. Justic, J.W.D. Lane, and J.E. Cable. 2011. Hydrodynamic response of the Breton Sound estuary to pulsed Mississippi River inputs. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 95: 216–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hyfield, E.C.G., J.W. Day, J.E. Cable, and J. Dubravko. 2008. The impacts of re-introducing Mississippi River water on the hydrologic budget and nutrient inputs of a deltaic estuary. Ecological Engineering 32: 347–359. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2007.12.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ialeggio, J.S., and J.A. Nyman. 2013. Nutria grazing preference as a function of fertilization, in pressGoogle Scholar
  40. Kearney, M.S., J.C. Alexis Riter, and R.E. Turner. 2011. Freshwater river diversions for marsh restoration in Louisiana: twenty-six years of changing vegetative cover and marsh area. Geophysical Research Letters 38: L16405. doi: 10.1029/2011GL047847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kelly, S. 1996. Small sediment diversions (MR-01) MR-01-MSPR-0696-2 Progress Report No. 2 for the periods September 1, 1993 to June 10, 1996. Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.Google Scholar
  42. Ket, W. A., J. P. Schubauer-Berigan, and C. B. Craft. 2011. Effects of five years of nitrogen and phosphorus addition on a Zizaniopsis miliacea tidal freshwater marsh. Aquatic Botany 95:17–23. doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2011.03.003.Google Scholar
  43. Kim, W., D. Mohrig, R. Twilley, C. Paola, and G. Parker. 2009. Is it feasible to build new land in the Mississippi River delta? EOS 90:373-384.Google Scholar
  44. Kirwan, M.L., A.B.. Burray, and W.S. Boyd. 2008. Temporary vegetation disturbance as an explanation for permanent loss of tidal wetlands. Geophysical Research Letters 35: L05403. doi: 10.1029/2007GL03268.
  45. Koch, M.S., I.A. Mendelssohn, and K.L. McKee. 1990. Mechanism for the hydrogen sulfide-induced growth limitation in wetland macrophytes. Limnology and Oceanography 35: 399–408. doi: 10.4319/lo.1990.35.2.0399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kolker, A.S., M.A. Allison, and S. Hameed. 2011. An evaluation of subsidence rates and sea-level variability in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Geophysical Research Letter 38: L21404. doi: 10.1029/2011GL049458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lane, R.R., J.W. Day Jr., and B. Thibodeaux. 1999. Water quality analysis of a freshwater diversion at Caernarvon, Louisiana. Estuaries 22: 327–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lane, R.R., J.W. Day Jr., and J.N. Day. 2006. Wetland surface elevation, vertical accretion, and subsidence at three Louisiana estuaries receiving diverted Mississippi River water. Wetlands 26: 1130–1142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. LCWCRTF. 1993. Louisiana Coastal Wetlands Restoration Plan. Main Report and Environmental Impact Statement. Prepared by Louisiana Coastal Wetlands Conservation and Restoration Task Force. http://lacoast.gov/new/Pubs/Reports/program.aspx. Accessed 18 Oct 2013
  50. LCWCRTF. 2010. The 2009 Evaluation Report to the U.S. Congress on the Effectiveness of Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act Projects. http://lacoast.gov/new/Pubs/Reports/program.aspx. Accessed 18 Oct 2013.
  51. LDWF. 2001. Louisiana Coastal Marsh Vegetative Type (poly), Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [marsh_veg_type_poly_LDWF_2001]: Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Fur and Refuge Division, and the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center., Lafayette, Louisiana, US. Downloaded 5 December from http://lagic.lsu.edu/data/losco/marsh_veg_type_poly_LDWF_2001.zip.
  52. Lemmon, A.E., J.T. Magill, and J. Wiese. 2003. Charting Louisiana: five hundred years of maps. The Historic New Orleans Collection, New Orleans LA USA. ISBN 0-917860-47-0.Google Scholar
  53. McCook, L.J. 1994. Understanding ecological community succession: causal models and theories, a review. Vegetatio. 100:115-147. DOI: 10.1007/BF00033394.Google Scholar
  54. McFalls, T.B., P.A. Keddy, D. Campbell, and G. Shaffer. 2010. Hurricanes, floods, levees, and nutria: vegetation responses to interacting disturbance and fertility regimes with implications for coastal wetland restoration. Journal of Coastal Research 26: 901–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McGinnis II, T. E. 1997. Factors of soil strength and shoreline movement in a Louisiana coastal marsh. Masters Thesis. University of Southwestern Louisiana. Lafayette, Louisiana, doi: 10.1007/s10533-008-9230-7.
  56. Merino, J., D. Huval, and A.J. Nyman. 2010. Implication of nutrient and salinity interaction on the productivity of Spartina patens. Wetlands Ecology and Management 18: 111–117. doi: 10.1007/s11273-008-9124-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Merino, J., C. Aust, and R. Caffey. 2011. Cost-efficacy in wetland restoration projects in coastal Louisiana. Wetlands 31: 367–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Middleton, B.A. 2009. Regeneration of costal marsh vegetation impacted by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Wetlands 29: 54–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Montalto, F.A., T.S. Steenhuis, and J.Y. Parlange. 2006. The hydrology of Piermont Marsh, a reference for tidal marsh restoration in the Hudson river estuary, New York. Journal of Hydrology 316: 108–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Morris, J.T., P.V. Sundareshway, C.T. Nietch, B. Kjerfve, and D.R. Cahoon. 2002. Responses of coastal wetlands to rising sea level. Ecology 83: 2869–2877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Morris, J. T., D. Porter, M. Neet, P. A. Noble, L Schmidt, L. A. Lapine, and J. R. Jensen. 2005. Integrating LIDAR elevation data, multi-spectral imagery and neural network modeling for marsh characterization. International Journal of Remote Sensing 26:5221-5234. DOI: 10.1080/01431160500219018.Google Scholar
  62. Morton, R.A., and J.A. Barras. 2011. Hurricane impacts on coastal wetlands: a half-century record of storm-generated features from southern Louisiana. Journal of Coastal Research 27(6A):27-43. DOI: 10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-10-00185.1.Google Scholar
  63. Mulder, E.G. 1954. Effect of mineral nutrition on lodging of cereals. Plant and Soil 5: 246–306. doi: 10.1007/BF01395900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nature. 2011. Louisiana marsh restoration has failed. Nature 476: 178. doi: 10.1038/476128a.Google Scholar
  65. Neubauer, S.C. 2008. Contribution of mineral and organic components to tidal freshwater marsh accretion. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 78: 78–88. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2007.11.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nyman, J.A., and R.H. Chabreck. 1995. Fire in coastal marshes: history and recent concerns. In Proceedings 19th Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference- Fire in wetlands: a management perspective, eds. S.I. Cerulean and R.T. Engstrom 135–141. Tallahassee, Florida: Tall Timbers Research, Inc.Google Scholar
  67. Nyman, J.A., M. Carloss, R.D. DeLaune, and W.H. Patrick Jr. 1994. Erosion rather than plant dieback as the mechanism of marsh loss in an estuarine marsh. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 19: 69–84. doi: 10.1002/esp.3290190106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nyman, J.A., C.R. Crozier, and R.D. DeLaune. 1995. Roles and patterns of hurricane sedimentation in an estuarine marsh landscape. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 40: 665–679. doi: 10.1006/ecss.1995.0045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nyman, J.A., R.J. Walters, R.D. DeLaune, and W.H. Patrick Jr. 2006. Marsh vertical accretion via vegetative growth. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 69: 370–380. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2006.05.041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nyman, J.A., M.K. La Peyre, A. Caldwell, S. Piazza, C. Thom, and C. Winslow. 2009. Defining restoration targets for water depth and salinity in wind-dominated Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. coastal marshes. Journal of Hydrology 376: 327–336. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.06.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Penland, S., R. Boyd, and J.R. Suter. 1988. Transgressive depositional systems of the Mississippi Delta Plain: a model for barrier shoreline and shelf sand development. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 58: 932–949.Google Scholar
  72. Platt, W.J., and J.H. Connell. 2003. Natural disturbances and direction replacement of species. Ecological Monographs 73: 507–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ravit B., J. Ehrenfeld, M. Häggblom, and M. Bartels. 2007. The effects of drainage and nitrogen enrichment on Phragmites australis, Spartina alterniflora, and their root-associated microbial communities. Wetlands 27:915-927. doi: 10.1672/0277-5212(2007)27(915:TEODAN)2.0.CO;2.Google Scholar
  74. Reed, D.J. 1989. Patterns of sediment deposition in subsiding coastal salt marshes, Terrebonne Bay, Louisiana: the role of winter storms. Estuaries 12: 222–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Roberts, H.H., and J.M. Coleman. 1996. Holocene evolution of the deltaic plain: a perspective—from Fisk to present. Engineering Geology 45: 113–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Saichuck, J., D. Harrell, S. Gauthier, D. Groth, Cl Hollier, N. Hummel, S. Linscombe, X. Sha, M. Stout, E. Webster, and L. White. 2011. Rice varieties and management tips. Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Publication No. 2270. Baton Rouge, Louisiana.Google Scholar
  77. Sasser, C.E., J.M. Visser, E. Mouton, J. Linscombe, and S.B. Hartley. 2008. Vegetation types in coastal Louisiana in 2007: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1224, 1 sheet, scale 1:550,000. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1224/pdf/OFR2008-1224.pdf.
  78. Schrift, A.M., I.A. Mendelssohn, and M.D. Materne. 2008. Salt marsh restoration with sediment-slurry amendments following a drought-induced large-scale disturbance. Wetlands 28: 1071–1085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Slocum, M., and I.A. Mendelssohn. 2008. Use of experimental disturbance to assess resilience along a known stress gradient. Ecological Indicators 8: 181–190. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2007.01.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Smith, S.M. 2009. Multi-decadal changes in salt marshes of Cape Cod, MA: photographic analyses of vegetation loss, species shifts, and geomorphic change. Northeastern Naturalist 16:183–208. doi: 10.1656/045.016.0203.Google Scholar
  81. Stearns, L.A., and M.W. Goodwin. 1941. Notes on the winter feeding of the muskrat in Delaware. Journal of Wildlife Management 5: 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Stevenson, M.J., and F.P. Day. 1996. Fine-root biomass distribution and production along a barrier island chronosequence. American Midland Naturals 135: 205–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tye, R.S., and J.H. Coleman. 1989. Evolution of Atchafalaya lacustrine deltas, south-central Louisiana. Sedimentary Geology 65: 95–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tyler, A.C., J.G. Lambrinos, and E.D. Grosholz. 2007. Nitrogen inputs promote the spread of an invasive marsh grass. Ecological Applications 17: 1886–1898. doi: 10.1890/06-0822.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Valiela, I., J.M. Teal, and N.Y. Persson. 1976. Production and dynamics of experimentally enriched salt marsh vegetating: belowground biomass. Limnology and Oceanography 21: 245–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. van der Valk, A.G. 1981. Succession in wetlands: a Gleasonian approach. Ecology 62: 688–696. doi: 10.2307/1937737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Visser, J.M., C.E. Sasser, R.H. Chabreck, and R.G. Linscombe. 1998. Marsh vegetation types of the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain. Estuaries 21: 818–828. doi: 10.2307/1353283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Visser, J.M., R.H. Chabreck, C.E. Sasser, and R.G. Linscombe. 2000. Marsh vegetation types of the Chenier Plain, Louisiana, USA. Estuaries 23: 318–327. doi: 10.2307/1353324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Visser, J.M., C.E. Sasser, and B.S. Cade. 2006. The effect of multiple stressors on salt marsh end-of-season biomass. Estuaries and Coasts 29: 328–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Warren, R.S.P.E., R. Fell, A.H. Rozsa, A.C. Brawley, E.T. Orsted, V. Olson, Swamy, and W.A. Neiring. 2002. Salt marsh restoration in Connecticut: 20 years of science and management. Restoration Ecology 10: 497–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Weller, M. W., and C. S. Spatcher. 1965. Role of habitat in the distribution and abundance of marsh birds. Special Report No. 43, Agricultural and Home Economics Experiment Station, Iowa State University.Google Scholar
  92. Wells, J.T., and J.M. Coleman. 1987. Wetland loss and the subdelta life cycle. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 25: 111–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Weston, N.B., M.A. Vile, S.C. Neubauer, and D.J. Velinsky. 2011. Accelerated microbial organic matter mineralization following salt-water intrusion into tidal freshwater marsh soils. Biogeochemistry 102: 135–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wilsey, B.J., and R.H. Chabreck. 1991. Nutritional quality of nutria diets in three Louisiana wetland habitats. Northeast Gulf Science 12: 67–72.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Renewable Natural ResourcesLouisiana State University Agricultural CenterBaton RougeUSA

Personalised recommendations