Advertisement

Estuaries and Coasts

, Volume 38, Supplement 1, pp 151–155 | Cite as

“The Coast” is Complicated: A Model to Consistently Describe the Nation’s Coastal Population

  • Brent W. Ache
  • Kristen M. CrossettEmail author
  • Percy A. Pacheco
  • Jeffery E. Adkins
  • Peter C. Wiley
Article

Abstract

Our nation’s coast is a complicated management area where no single delineation provides all of the demographic statistics needed to address the full range of policy and management issues. As a result, several different coastal delineations are currently being used, yielding a variety of US coastal population statistics. This paper proposes a simple model for generating and applying coastal population statistics at the national and regional level to increase consistency in coastal policy discussions and improve public understanding of coastal issues. The model includes two major components. The first component is “the population that most directly affects the coast,” represented by the permanent US population that resides in a standard suite of Coastal Watershed Counties, where land use and water quality changes most directly impact coastal ecosystems. The second component is “the population most directly affected by the coast,” represented by the permanent US population that resides in a standard suite of Coastal Shoreline Counties that are directly adjacent to the open ocean, major estuaries, and the Great Lakes, which due to their proximity to these waters, bear a great proportion of the full range of effects from coastal hazards and host the majority of economic production associated with coastal and ocean resources.

Keywords

Coastal population Coastal counties Coastal Watershed Counties Coastal Shoreline Counties 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Mark Crowell of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Linwood Pendleton of Duke University, Marc Perry of the U.S. Census Bureau, and Charles Colgan of the University of Maine for their contributions to this paper.

References

  1. Boruff, Bryan J., Christopher Emrich, and Susan L. Cutter. 2005. Erosion hazard vulnerability of US coastal counties. Journal of Coastal Research 21(5): 932–942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bricker, S., B. Longstaff, W. Dennison, A. Jones, K. Boicourt, C. Wicks, and J. Woerner. 2007. Effects of nutrient enrichment in the nation’s estuaries: A decade of change. NOAA Coastal Ocean Program Decision Analysis Series No. 26. Silver Spring: National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science. 328 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Brody, Samual, Wesley E. Highfield, and Jung Eun Kang. 2011. Rising waters: The causes and consequences of flooding in the United States. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Crossett, K.M., T.J. Culliton, P.C. Wiley, and T.R. Goodspeed. 2004. Population trends along the coastal United States: 1980–2008. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.Google Scholar
  5. Crossett, K.M., C.G. Clement, and S.O. Rohmann. 2008. Demographic baseline report of U.S. territories and counties adjacent to coral reef habitats. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.Google Scholar
  6. Crowell, Mark, Scott Edelman, Kevin Coulton, and Scott McAfee. 2007. How many people live in coastal areas? Editorial Journal of Coastal Research 23(5): iii–iv.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Crowell, M., K. Coulton, C. Johnson, J. Westcott, D. Bellomo, S. Edelman, and E. Hirsch. 2010. An estimate of the U.S. population living in 100-year coastal flood hazard areas. Journal of Coastal Research 26(2): 201–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Culliton, T.J., T.R. Goodspeed, D.G. Remer, C.M. Blackwell, and J.J. McDonough. 1990. 50 years of population change along the nation’s coasts 1960–2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.Google Scholar
  9. Henrie, Christopher, and David Plane. 2006. Decentralization of the nation’s main street: New coastal-proximity-based portrayals of population distribution in the United States, 1950–2000. Professional Geographer 58(4): 448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kruk, Michael C., David H. Levinson, Ethan J. Gibney, and Paula A. Hennon. 2010. What is coastal climate? Presentation at the 17th Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography.Google Scholar
  11. Lichter, Michael, Athanasios T. Vafeidis, Robert J. Nicholls, and Gunilla Kaiser. 2011. Exploring data-related uncertainties in the analyses of land area and population in the “Low-Elevation Coastal Zone” (LECZ). Journal of Coastal Research 27(4): 757–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. National Association of Counties (NACO). 2012. Coastal counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed 19 July 2012.
  13. National Ocean Economics Program (NOEP). 2009. State of the U.S. ocean and coastal economies 2009. http://www.oceaneconomics.org/NationalReport/. Accessed 6 June 2012.
  14. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2012a. NOAA’s State of the Coast Web Site. http://stateofthecoast.noaa.gov. Accessed 30 May 2012.
  15. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2012b. Coastal Assessment Framework. http://coastalgeospatial.noaa.gov/ or http://coastalsocioeconomics.noaa.gov. Accessed 7 June 2012.
  16. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2012c. Spatial Trends in Coastal Socioeconomics. http://coastalsocioeconomics.noaa.gov/. Accessed 30 May 2012.
  17. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2012d. National Coastal Population Report: Population trends from 1970 to 2020. Available from: http://stateofthecoast.noaa.gov/features/coastal-population-report.pdf.
  18. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2012e. NOAA Medium Resolution Shoreline. http://www.shoreline.noaa.gov. Accessed 30 May 2012.
  19. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Services Center (NOAA CSC). 2012. Economics: National Ocean Watch Web Site and Dataset. http://www.csc.noaa.gov/enow/explorer/. Accessed 10 June 2012.
  20. National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2008. The Gulf of Mexico at a glance. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.Google Scholar
  21. Nicholls, R.J., and C. Small. 2002. Improved estimates of coastal population and exposure to hazards released. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 83(28): 301. doi: 10.1029/2002EO000216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Strobl, Eric. 2011. The economic growth impact of hurricanes: Evidence from U.S. coastal counties. The Review of Economics and Statistics 93(2): 575–589. doi: 10.1162/REST_a_00082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. U.S. Census Bureau. 2010. P25-1139: Coastline population trends in the United States: 1960 to 2008. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.Google Scholar
  24. Zhang, Keqi, and Stephen Leatherman. 2011. Barrier Island population along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Journal of Coastal Research 27(2): 356–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brent W. Ache
    • 1
  • Kristen M. Crossett
    • 1
    Email author
  • Percy A. Pacheco
    • 1
  • Jeffery E. Adkins
    • 2
  • Peter C. Wiley
    • 3
  1. 1.National Ocean Service, Special Projects DivisionNational Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationSilver SpringUSA
  2. 2.NOAA Coastal Services Center, National Ocean ServiceNational Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationCharlestonUSA
  3. 3.NOAA Coastal Services Center, National Ocean ServiceNational Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationSilver SpringUSA

Personalised recommendations