Advertisement

Estuaries and Coasts

, Volume 36, Issue 3, pp 445–456 | Cite as

Tidal Freshwater Wetlands: Variation and Changes

  • Aat BarendregtEmail author
  • Christopher W. Swarth
Article

Abstract

Tidal freshwater wetlands (TFW) are situated in the upper estuary in a zone bordered upstream by the nontidal river and downstream by the oligohaline region. Here, discharge of freshwater from the river and the daily tidal pulse from the sea combine to create conditions where TFW develop. TFW are often located where human population density is high, which has led to wetland degradation or destruction. Globally, TFW are largely restricted to the temperate zone where the magnitude of annual river discharge prevents saline waters from penetrating too far inland. The constant input of river water delivers high loads of sediments, dissolved nutrients, and other suspended matter leading to high sedimentation rates and high nutrient levels. Prominent biogeochemical processes include the transformation of nitrogen by bacteria and immobilization of phosphate. A diverse, characteristic vegetation community develops which supports a rich fauna. Biotic diversity is highest in the high marsh areas and decreases in the lower levels where tidal inundation is greatest. Benthic fauna is rather poor in diversity but high in biomass compared to other regions of the estuary. Global climate change is a threat for this system directly by sea level rise, which will cause brackish water to intrude into the fresh system, and indirectly during droughts, which reduce river discharge. Salinity will affect the presence of flora and fauna and facilitates sulfate reduction of organic matter in the soil. Increased decomposition of organic matter following saltwater intrusion can result in a lowering of wetland surface elevation. The papers assembled in this issue focus on how these tidal freshwater wetlands have changed over recent time and how they may respond to new impacts in the future.

Keywords

Estuary River Fresh water Processes Hydrology Distribution History Human impact Diversity Global change 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Mary Leck, Carlton Hershner, and Iris Anderson for reviewing earlier drafts of our “Introduction” section and offering many constructive comments. We also thank the following individuals for reviewing the manuscripts in this issue: Carmen Aguilar, Linda Blum, Suzanna Brauer, John C. Callaway, Bob Christian, Robert J. Diaz, Heida Diefenderfer, Stuart Findlay, Marilyn Fogel, Carlton H. Hershner, Cheryl Kelley, Carla Koretsky, Adam Langley, Mary Leck, Shufen Ma, Robin Miller, Gregory Noe, Steven C. Pennings, Michael Piehler, Marty Rabenhorst, Lawrence P. Rozas, Lori Sutter, Christopher Swarzenski, Jenneke Visser, Nathaniel B. Weston, Kimberlyn Williams, Lisamarie Windham-Myers, Joseph Yavitt, and Susan Ziegler.

References

  1. Alberts, J.J., and M. Takács. 1999. Importance of humic substances for carbon and nitrogen transport into southeastern United States estuaries. Organic Geochemistry 30: 385–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arrigoni, A., S. Findlay, D. Fischer, and K. Tockner. 2008. Predicting carbon and nutrient transformations in tidal freshwater wetlands of the Hudson River. Ecosystems 11: 790–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Attrill, M.J. 2002. A testable linear model for diversity trends in estuaries. Journal of Animal Ecology 71: 262–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldwin, A.H. 2004. Restoring complex vegetation in urban settings: the case of tidal freshwater marshes. Urban Ecosystems 8: 125–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baldwin, A.H. 2007. Vegetation and seed bank studies of salt-pulsed swamps of the Nanticoke River, Chesapeake Bay. In Ecology of tidal freshwater forested wetlands of the Southeastern United States, ed. W.H. Conner, T.W. Doyle, and K.W. Krauss, 139–160. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baldwin, A.H., M.S. Egnotovich, and E. Clarke. 2001. Hydrologic change and vegetation of tidal freshwater marshes: field, greenhouse, and seed bank experiments. Wetlands 21: 519–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baldwin, A.H., A. Barendregt, and D.F. Whigham. 2009. Tidal freshwater wetlands—an introduction to the ecosystem. In Tidal freshwater wetlands, ed. A. Barendregt, D.F. Whigham, and A.H. Baldwin, 1–10. Leiden, the Netherlands: Backhuys.Google Scholar
  8. Barendregt, A. 2005. The impact of flooding regime on ecosystems in a freshwater tidal area. Eco-hydrology and Hydrobiology 5: 95–102.Google Scholar
  9. Barendregt, A., D. Whigham, P. Meire, A. Baldwin, and S. Van Damme. 2006. Wetlands in the tidal freshwater zone. In Wetlands: function, biodiversity, conservation, restoration; Ecological studies, vol. 191, ed. R. Bobbink, B. Beltman, J.T.A. Verhoeven, and D.F. Whigham, 117–148. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barendregt, A., D.F. Whigham, and A.H. Baldwin (eds.). 2009a. Tidal freshwater wetlands. Leiden: Backhuys.Google Scholar
  11. Barendregt, A., T. Ysebaert, and W.J. Wolff. 2009b. Animal communities in European tidal freshwater wetlands. In Tidal freshwater wetlands, eds. Barendregt et al., 89–104.Google Scholar
  12. Barendregt, A., P. Glöer, and F. Saris. 2009c. Ecological consequences of a change in tidal amplitude in tidal freshwater wetlands. In Tidal freshwater wetlands, eds. Barendregt et al., 185–196.Google Scholar
  13. Bedford, B.L., M.R. Walbridge, and A. Aldous. 1999. Patterns in nutrient availability and plant diversity of temperate North American wetlands. Ecology 80: 2151–2169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Conner, W.H., T.W. Doyle, and K.W. Krauss. 2007. Ecology of Tidal freshwater forested wetlands of the Southeastern United States. The Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  15. Costanza, R., R. d’Arge, R. de Groot, S. Farber, M. Gasso, B. Hannon, K. Limburg, S. Naeem, R.V. O’Neill, J. Paruelo, R.G. Raskin, P. Sutton, and M. Van den Belt. 1997. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387: 253–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Craft, C. 2007. Freshwater input structures soil properties, vertical accretion, and nutrient accumulation of Georgia and U.S. tidal marshes. Limnology and Oceanography 52: 1220–1230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Craft, C., J. Clough, J. Ehman, S. Joye, R. Park, S. Pennings, S. Guo, and M. Machmuller. 2009. Forecasting the effects of accelerated sea level rise on tidal marsh ecosystem services. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7: 73–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crain, C.M. 2007. Shifting nutrient limitation and eutrophication effects in marsh vegetation across estuarine salinity gradients. Estuaries and Coasts 30: 26–34.Google Scholar
  19. Crain, C.M., B.R. Silliman, S.L. Bertness, and M.D. Bertness. 2004. Physical and biotic drivers of plant distribution across estuarine salinity gradients. Ecology 85: 2539–2549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dame, R., M. Alber, D. Allen, M. Mallin, C. Montargue, A. Lewitus, A. Chalmers, R. Gardner, C. Gilman, B. Kjerfve, J. Pickney, and N. Smith. 2000. Estuaries of the south Atlantic coast of North America: their geographical signatures. Estuaries 23: 793–819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Darke, A.K., and J.P. Megonigal. 2003. Control of sediment deposition rates in two mid-Atlantic Coast tidal freshwater wetlands. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 57: 255–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davidson, N.C., D. d’A Laffoley, J.P. Doody, L.S. Way, J. Gordon, R. Key, C.M. Drake, M.W. Pienkowski, R. Mitchell, and K.L. Duff. 1991. Nature conservation and estuaries of Great Britain. Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough, UK.Google Scholar
  23. Dent Jr., R.J. 1995. Chesapeake prehistory: old traditions, new directions. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  24. Dynesius, M., and C. Nilsson. 1994. Fragmentation and flow regulation of river systems in the northern third of the world. Science 266: 753–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Eckard, R.S., P.J. Hernes, B.A. Bergamaschi, R. Stepanauskas, and C. Kendall. 2007. Landscape scale controls on the vascular plant component of dissolved organic carbon across a freshwater delta. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71: 5968–5984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Edmiston, H.L., S.A. Fahrny, M.S. Lamb, L.K. Levi, J.M. Wanat, J.S. Avant, K. Wren, and N.C. Selly. 2008. Tropical storm and hurricane impacts on a Gulf Coast estuary: Apalachicola Bay, Florida. Journal of Coastal Research 55(SI): 38–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Eisma, D. 1986. Flocculation and de-flocculation of suspended matter in estuaries. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 20: 183–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Elliott, M., and D.S. McLusky. 2002. The need for definitions in understanding estuaries. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 55: 815–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Emmett, R., R. Llanso, J. Newton, R. Thom, M. Hornberger, C. Morgan, C. Levings, A. Copping, and P. Fishman. 2000. Geographic signatures of North American West Coast estuaries. Estuaries 23: 765–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ensign, S.H., M.F. Piehler, and M.W. Doyle. 2008. Riparian zone denitrification affects nitrogen flux through a tidal freshwater river. Biogeochemistry 91: 133–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Erkens, G. 2010. Sediment dynamics in the Rhine catchment. PhD Thesis Utrecht. Netherlands Geographical Studies 388.Google Scholar
  32. Fain, A.M.V., D.A. Jay, D.J. Wilson, P.M. Orton, and A.M. Baptista. 2001. Seasonal and tidal monthly patterns of particulate matter dynamics in the Columbia River estuary. Estuaries 24: 770–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fairbridge, R.W. 1980. The estuary: its definition and geochemical role. In Chemistry and geochemistry of estuaries, ed. E. Olausson and I. Cato, 1–35. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  34. Field, R.T., and K.R. Philipp. 2000. Vegetation changes in the freshwater tidal marsh of the Delaware estuary. Wetlands Ecology and Management 8: 79–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Findlay, S.E.G., C. Wigand, and W.C. Nieder. 2006. Submersed macrophyte distribution and function in the tidal freshwater Hudson River. In The Hudson River estuary, ed. J.S. Levinton and J.R. Waldman, 230–241. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fletcher II, C.H., J.E. van der Pelt, G.S. Brush, and J. Sherman. 1993. Tidal wetland record of Holocene sea-level movements and climate history. Palaeography, Palaeoclimatology, Paleaoecology 102: 177–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Frost, J.W., T. Schleicher, and C. Craft. 2009. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus additions on primary production and invertebrate densities in a Georgia (USA) tidal freshwater marsh. Wetlands 29: 196–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Good, R.E., D.F. Whigham, and R.L. Simpson (eds.). 1978. Freshwater wetlands, ecological processes and management potential. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  39. Grabemann, I., and G. Krause. 2001. On different time scales of suspended matter dynamics in the Weser estuary. Estuaries 24: 688–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Greene, S. 2005. Nutrient removal by tidal fresh and oligohaline marshes in a Chesapeake Bay tributary. Master's thesis. Chesapeake Biological Lab, University of Maryland, College Park, MarylandGoogle Scholar
  41. Hall, J. V. 2009. Tidal freshwater wetlands of Alaska. In Tidal freshwater wetlands, eds. Barendregt et al., 179–184.Google Scholar
  42. Heip, C., N.K. Goosen, P.M.J. Herman, J. Kromkamp, J.J. Middelburg, and K. Soetaert. 1995. Production and consumption of biological particles in temperate tidal estuaries. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 33: 1–149.Google Scholar
  43. Hopfensperger, K.N., and K.A.M. Engelhardt. 2008. Annual species abundance in a tidal freshwater marsh: germination and survival across an elevational gradient. Wetlands 28: 521–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hopfensperger, K.N., S.S. Kaushal, S.E.G. Findlay, and J.C. Cornwell. 2009. Influence of plant communities on denitrification in a tidal freshwater marsh of the Potomac River, United States. Journal of Environmental Quality 38: 618–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Howard, R.J., and I.A. Mendelssohn. 2000. Structure and composition of oligohaline marsh plant communities exposed to salinity pulses. Aquatic Botany 68: 143–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kandus, P., and A.I. Malvárez. 2004. Vegetation patterns and change analysis in the Lower Delta Islands of the Paraná River (Argentina). Wetlands 24: 620–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kerner, M. 2007. Effects of deepening the Elbe Estuary on sediment regime and water quality. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 75: 492–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kerr, J.L., D.S. Baldwin, and K.L. Whitworth. 2013. Options for managing hypoxic blackwater events in river systems: a review. Journal of Environmental Management 114: 139–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ket, W.A., J.P. Schubauer-Berigan, and C.B. Craft. 2011. Effects of five years of nitrogen and phosphorus additions on a Zizaniopsis miliacea tidal freshwater marsh. Aquatic Botany 95: 17–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Khan, H., and G.S. Brush. 1994. Nutrient and metal accumulation in a freshwater tidal marsh. Estuaries 17: 345–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kötter, F. 1961. Die Pflanzengesellschaften der Unterelbe. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Suppl 26: 106–184.Google Scholar
  52. Krauss, K.W., J.A. Duberstein, T.W. Doyle, W.H. Conner, R.H. Day, L.W. Inabinette, and J.L. Whitbeck. 2009. Site condition, structure, and growth of bald cypress along tidal/non-tidal salinity gradients. Wetlands 29: 505–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Laverman, A.M., R.W. Canavan, C.P. Slomp, and P. van Cappellen. 2007. Potential nitrate removal in a coastal freshwater sediment (Haringvliet Lake, The Netherlands) and response to salinization. Water Research 41: 3061–3068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Leck, M.A. 2003. Seed-bank and vegetation development in a created tidal freshwater wetland on the Delaware River, Trenton, New Jersey, USA. Wetlands 23: 310–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Leck, M.A., A.H. Baldwin, V.T. Parker, L. Schile, and D.F. Whigham. 2009. Plant communities of tidal freshwater wetlands of the continental USA and southeast Canada. In Tidal freshwater wetlands, eds. Barendregt et al., 41–58.Google Scholar
  56. Lehman, P., W. Lehman, S. Mayr, L. Mecum, and C. Enright. 2010. The freshwater tidal wetland Liberty Island, CA was both a source and sink of inorganic and organic material to the San Francisco Estuary. Aquatic Ecology 44: 359–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Loomis, M.J., and C.B. Craft. 2011. Carbon sequestration and nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus) accumulation in river-dominated tidal marshes, Georgia, USA. Soil Science Society of America Journal 74: 1028–1036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Marton, J.M., E.R. Herbert, and C.B. Craft. 2012. Effects of salinity on denitrification and greenhouse gas production from laboratory-incubated tidal forests soils. Wetlands 32: 347–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McLusky, D.S. 1993. Marine and estuarine gradients—an overview. Netherlands Journal of Aquatic Ecology 27: 489–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McLusky, D.S., and M. Elliott. 2004. The estuarine ecosystem: ecology, threats and management. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. McLusky, D.S., and M. Elliott. 2007. Transitional waters: a new approach, semantics or just muddying the waters? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 71: 359–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Meade, R.H. 1972. Transport and deposition of sediments in estuaries. The Geological Society of America-Memoir 133: 91–120.Google Scholar
  63. Megonigal, J.P., and S.C. Neubauer. 2009. Biogeochemistry of freshwater tidal wetlands. In Coastal wetlands: an integrated ecosystem approach, ed. G.M.E. Perillo, E. Wolanski, D.R. Cahoon, and M.M. Brinson, 535–563. New York: Elsevier Press.Google Scholar
  64. Meire, P., and S. Van Damme (eds). 2005. Special issue: ecological structures and functions in the Scheldt estuary: from past to future. Hydrobiologia 540: 1–278.Google Scholar
  65. Meire, P., and M. Vincx (eds). 1993. Marine and estuarine gradients. Netherlands Journal of Aquatic Ecology 27: 41–496.Google Scholar
  66. Mitsch, W.J., and J.G. Gosselink. 2007. Wetlands, 4th ed. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  67. Morse, J.L., J.P. Megonigal, and M.R. Walbridge. 2004. Sediment nutrient accumulation and nutrient availability in two tidal freshwater marshes along the Mattaponi River, Virginia, USA. Biogeochemistry 69: 175–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Neff, K.P., and A.H. Baldwin. 2005. Seed dispersal into wetlands: techniques and results for a restored tidal freshwater marsh. Wetlands 25: 392–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Neubauer, S.C. 2008. Contributions of mineral and organic components to tidal freshwater marsh accretion. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 78: 78–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Neubauer, S.C., and C.B. Craft. 2009. Global change and tidal freshwater wetlands: scenarios and impacts. In Tidal freshwater wetlands, eds. Barendregt et al., 253–266.Google Scholar
  71. Neubauer, S.C., I.C. Anderson, J.A. Constantine, and S.A. Kuehl. 2002. Sediment deposition and accretion in a Mid-Atlantic (U.S.A.) tidal freshwater marsh. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 54: 713–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Neubauer, S.C., I.C. Anderson, and B.B. Neikirk. 2005. Nitrogen cycling and ecosystem exchanges in a Virginia tidal freshwater marsh. Estuaries 28: 909–922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Nordstrom, K.F., and C.T. Roman (eds.). 1996. Estuarine shores—evolution, environments and human alterations. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  74. Odum, W.E. 1988. Comparative ecology of tidal freshwater and salt marshes. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 19: 147–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Odum, W.E., T.J. Smith III, J.K. Hoover, and C.C. McIvor. 1984. The ecology of tidal freshwater marshes of the United States east coast: A community profile. Washington DC, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, FWS/OBS-83/17.Google Scholar
  76. Odum, W.E., E.P. Odum, and H.T. Odum. 1995. Nature’s pulsing paradigm. Estuaries 18: 547–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Officer, C.B. 1981. Physical dynamics of estuarine suspended sediments. Marine Geology 40: 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Orson, R.A., R.L. Simpson, and R.E. Good. 1990. Rates of sediment accumulation in a tidal freshwater marsh. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 60: 859–869.Google Scholar
  79. Pasternack, G.B. 2009. Hydrogeomorphology and sedimentation in tidal freshwater wetlands. In Tidal Freshwater Wetlands, eds. Barendregt et al., 31–40.Google Scholar
  80. Pasternack, G.B., and G.S. Brush. 1998. Sedimentation cycles in a river-mouth tidal freshwater marsh. Estuaries 21: 407–415.Google Scholar
  81. Pasternack, G.B., and G.S. Brush. 2001. Seasonal variations in sedimentation and organic content in five plant associations on a Chesapeake Bay tidal freshwater delta. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 53: 93–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pasternack, G.B., G.S. Brush, and W.B. Hilgartner. 2001. Impact of historic land-use change on sediment delivery to an estuarine delta. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 26: 409–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Petzelberger, B.E.M. 2000. Coastal development and human activities in NW Germany. In Coastal and estuarine environments: sedimentology, geomorphology and geoarchaeology. Special Publications, vol. 175, ed. K. Pye and J.R.L. Allen, 365–376. London: Geological Society.Google Scholar
  84. Pritchard, D.W. 1967. What is an estuary: a physical viewpoint. American Association for the Advancement of Science 83: 3–5.Google Scholar
  85. Remane, A. 1934. Die Brackwasserfauna. Zoologischer Anzeiger (Supplement) 7: 34–74.Google Scholar
  86. Remane, A., and C. Schlieper. 1971. Biology of brackish water. Stuttgart: E. Schweiserbart’sche.Google Scholar
  87. Riedel-Lorjé, J.C., and T. Gaument. 1982. A century of Elbe research—hydrobiological conditions and fish populations from 1842 to 1943 under the influence of construction projects and sewage discharge (in German). Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Suppl 61: 317–376.Google Scholar
  88. Roman, C.T., N. Jaworski, F.T. Short, S. Findlay, and R.S. Warren. 2000. Estuaries of the Northeastern United States: habitat and land use signatures. Estuaries 23: 743–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rysgaard, S., P. Thastum, T. Dalsgaard, P.B. Christensen, and N.P. Sloth. 1999. Effect of salinity on NH4 adsorption capacity, nitrification, and denitrification in Danish estuarine sediments. Estuaries 22: 21–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sasser, C.E., J.M. Visser, D.E. Evers, and J.G. Gosselink. 1995. The role of environmental variables in interannual variation in species composition and biomass in a sub-tropical minerotrophic floating marsh. Canadian Journal of Botany 73: 413–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Schneider, D.W. 1996. Effects of European settlement and land use on regional patterns of similarity among Chesapeake forests. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 123: 233–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sharpe, P.J., and A.H. Baldwin. 2012. Tidal marsh plant community response to sea-level rise: a mesocosm study. Aquatic Botany 101: 34–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Simpson, R.L., R.E. Good, M.A. Leck, and D.F. Whigham. 1983. The ecology of freshwater tidal wetlands. BioScience 34: 255–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Stinchcomb, G.E., T.C. Messner, S.G. Driese, L.C. Nordt, and R.M. Stewart. 2011. Pre-colonial (A.D. 1100–1600) sedimentation related to prehistoric maize agriculture and climate change in eastern North America. Geology 39: 363–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Struyf, E., S. Jacobs, P. Meire, K. Jensen, and A. Barendregt. 2009. Plant communities of European tidal freshwater wetlands. In Tidal Freshwater Wetlands, eds. Barendregt et al., 59–70.Google Scholar
  96. Swarth, C., and D. Peters. 1993. Water quality and nutrient dynamics at Jug Bay on the Patuxent River 1987–1992. Technical Report of the Jug Bay Wetlands Sanctuary.Google Scholar
  97. Swarth, C.W., and E. Kiviat. 2009. Animal communities in North American tidal freshwater wetlands. In Tidal Freshwater Wetlands, eds. Barendregt et al., 71–88.Google Scholar
  98. Van Damme, S., E. Struyf, T. Maris, T. Ysebaert, F. Dehairs, M. Tackx, C. Heip, and P. Meire. 2005. Spatial and temporal patterns of water quality along the estuarine salinity gradient of the Scheldt estuary (Belgium and The Netherlands): results of an integrated monitoring approach. Hydrobiologia 540: 29–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Van Damme, S., E. Struyf, T. Maris, T. Cox, and P. Meire. 2009. Characteristic aspects of the tidal freshwater zone that affect aquatic primary production. In Tidal Freshwater Wetlands, eds. Barendregt et al., 123–136.Google Scholar
  100. Van de Noort, R. 2004. The humber wetlands, the archaeology of a dynamic landscape. Macclesfield: Windgather.Google Scholar
  101. Van den Bergh, E., A. Garniel, R.K.A. Morris, and A. Barendregt. 2009. Conservation of tidal freshwater wetlands in Europe. In Tidal Freshwater Wetlands, eds. Barendregt et al., 241–252.Google Scholar
  102. Van Regteren Altena, J.F., J.A. Bakker, A.T. Clason, W. Glasbergen, W. Groenman - van Wateringe, and L.J. Pons. 1962/1963. The Vlaardingen culture. Helinium II 3–35, 97–103, 215–243; III 39–54, 97–120.Google Scholar
  103. Verger, F. 2005. Marais Maritimes et Estuaires du Littoral Français. Paris, Berlin.Google Scholar
  104. Vermeer, M., and S. Rahmstorf. 2009. Global sea level linked to global temperature. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 21527–21532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Verney, R., R. Lafite, and J.-C. Brun-Cottan. 2009. Flocculation potential of estuarine particles: the importance of environmental factors and of the spatial and seasonal variability of suspended particulate matter. Estuaries and Coasts 32: 678–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Walter, R.C., and D.J. Merrits. 2008. Natural streams and the legacy of water-powered mills. Science 319: 299–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Weston, N.B., R.E. Dixon, and S.B. Joye. 2006. Ramifications of increased salinity in tidal freshwater sediments: geochemistry and microbial pathways of organic matter mineralization. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences 111(G01009).Google Scholar
  108. Weston, N.B., M.A. Vile, S.C. Neubauer, and D.J. Velinsky. 2011. Accelerated microbial organic matter mineralization following salt-water intrusion into tidal freshwater marsh soils. Biogeochemistry 102: 135–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Whigham, D.F. 2009. Primary production in tidal freshwater wetlands. In Tidal freshwater wetlands, eds. Barendregt et al., 115–122.Google Scholar
  110. Wolff, W.J. 1973. The estuary as a habitat—an analysis of the soft-bottom macrofauna of the estuarine area of the rivers Rhine, Meuse, and Scheldt. Zoölogische Verhandelingen, Leiden 126: 1–242.Google Scholar
  111. Yozzo, D.J., D.E. Smith, and M.L. Lewis. 1994. Tidal freshwater ecosystems. Bibliography. Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences, Contribution No.1880. Gloucester Point, VA, USA.Google Scholar
  112. Ysebaert, T., P. Meire, J. Coosen, and K. Essink. 1998. Zonation of intertidal macrobenthos in the estuaries of Schelde and Ems. Aquatic Ecology 32: 53–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Ysebaert, T., P.M.J. Herman, P. Meire, J. Craeymeersch, H. Verbeek, and C.H.R. Heip. 2003. Large-scale spatial patterns in estuaries: estuarine macrobenthic communities in the Schelde estuary, NW-Europe. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 57: 335–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Zonneveld, I.S. 1960. The Brabantsche Biesbosch. A study of soil and vegetation of a fresh water tidal delta. PhD Dissertation, Wageningen, NL.Google Scholar
  115. Zonneveld, I.S., and A. Barendregt. 2009. Human activities in European tidal freshwater wetlands. In Tidal freshwater wetlands, eds. Barendregt et al., 11–20.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Copernicus InstituteUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Jug Bay Wetland SanctuaryLothianUSA
  3. 3.Sierra Nevada Research InstituteUniversity of CaliforniaMercedUSA

Personalised recommendations