Spatial and Temporal Variability of the CO2 Fluxes in a Tropical, Highly Urbanized Estuary
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The spatial and temporal variations of the flux of CO2 were determined during 2007 in the Recife estuarine system (RES), a tropical estuary that receives anthropogenic loads from one of the most populated and industrialized areas of the Brazilian coast. The RES acts as a source of nutrients (N and P) for coastal waters. The calculated CO2 fluxes indicate that the upstream inputs of CO2 from the rivers are largely responsible for the net annual CO2 emission to the atmosphere of +30 to +48 mmol m−2 day−1, depending on the CO2 exchange calculation used, which mainly occurs during the late austral winter and early summer. The observed inverse relationship between the CO2 flux and the net ecosystem production (NEP) indicates the high heterotrophy of the system (except for the months of November and December). The NEP varies between −33 mmol m−2 day−1 in summer and −246 mmol m−2 day−1 in winter. The pCO2 values were permanently high during the study period (average ~4,700 μatm) showing a gradient between the inner (12,900 μatm) and lower (389 μatm) sections on a path of approximately 30 km. This reflects a state of permanent pollution in the basin due to the upstream loading of untreated domestic effluents (N/P = 1,367:6 μmol kg−1 and pH = 6.9 in the inner section), resulting in the continuous mineralization of organic material by heterotrophic organisms and thereby increasing the dissolved CO2 in estuarine waters.
KeywordsEcosystem metabolism Carbon dioxide fluxes pCO2 Recife estuary
We thank the Pernambuco State Environmental Agency (CPRH) and the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET-Recife) for providing the field data used here. This work was funded by the BIO-NE project (grant 558143/2009-1) of the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). We are very grateful to the editors Alberto Borges and Wayne S. Gardner and four anonymous reviewers for their suggestions and comments that improve this manuscript. Finally, we are very grateful to Lisa Robbins (U.S. Geological Survey) for her help with the CO2calc program.
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