Estuaries and Coasts

, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 384–394

Comparative Analysis of Phytoplankton Composition and Abundance over a Two-Decade Period at the Land–Ocean Boundary of a Tropical Mangrove Ecosystem

  • Haimanti Biswas
  • Mitali Dey
  • Dipnarayan Ganguly
  • Tarun K. De
  • Sandip Ghosh
  • Tapan K. Jana
Article

Abstract

Inter-annual variations of phytoplankton abundance and community organization were observed over a two-decade period along with the ancillary parameters at the land–ocean boundary associated with the Sundarban mangrove forest (21°32′ and 22°40′ N and 88°05′ and 89° E), along the NE Coast of the Bay of Bengal. The number of definable Bacillariophyceae species exceeded Dinophyceae taxa, and the total number of bloom-forming species declined from a maximum of ten in 2000 and a minimum of two in 2007. Blooms of the diatom Coscinodiscus radiatus were common in 2000 and 2007. Tide cycles and the onset of the monsoon season played important roles in diurnal and seasonal variability of phytoplankton. Phytoplankton biovolume showed seasonality, with the highest levels during post-monsoon periods and lowest levels during the monsoon period. Phytoplankton abundance was correlated to rainfall patterns, which may be altered by long-term changes in climate.

Keywords

Phytoplankton dynamics Inter-annual variation Mangrove 

References

  1. APHA (American Public Health Association). 1995. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, 19th ed, 3–15. Washington: American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
  2. Arrigo, K.R., G.R. Di Tullio, R.B. Dunbar, M.P. Lizotte, D.H. Robinson, M. Vanwoert, and D.L. Worthen. 2000. Phytoplankton taxonomic variability and nutrient utilization and primary production in the Ross Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research 105: 8827–8846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Badylak, S. and E.J. Philips. 2004. Spatial and temporal patterns of phytoplankton composition in a subtropical coastal lagoon, the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. Journal of Plankton Research 6(10): 1229–1247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Biswas, H., S.K. Mukhopadhyay, T.K. De, S. Sen, and T.K. Jana. 2004. Biogenic Controls on the air-water carbon dioxide exchange in the Sundarban mangrove environment, northeast coast of Bay of Bengal, India. Limnology and Oceanography 49(1): 95–101.Google Scholar
  5. Borkman, D. and T. Smayda. 2009. Multidecadal (1959–1997) changes in Skeletonema abundance and seasonal bloom patterns in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA. Journal of Sea Research 61: 84–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chatterjee, A., C. Dutta, S. Sen, K. Ghosh, N. Biswas, D. Ganguly, and T.K. Jana. 2006. Formation, transportation and removal of aerosol over a tropical mangrove forest. Journal of Geophysical Research 111: D24302. doi:10.1029/2006JD007144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Christopher, A.K., L. Elena, D. Tanguy, and A.L. Simon. 2004. Optimal nitrogen-to-phosphorus stoichiometry of phytoplankton. Nature 429: 171–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cloern, J.E. 1996. Phytoplankton bloom dynamics in coastal ecosystem: A review with some general lessons from sustained investigation of San Francisco Bay, California: Reviews of Geophysics, 34, 2/ May 1996, 96G00986, pp 127-168.Google Scholar
  9. Cloern, J.E., A.E. Alpine, B.E. Cole, R.L. Wong, J.F. Arthur, and M.D. Ball. 1983. River discharge controls phytoplankton dynamics in the northern San Francisco Bay estuary. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 16: 415–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cociasu, A., L. Dorogan, C. Humborg, and L. Popa. 1996. Long-term ecological changes in Romanian coastal waters of the Black Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletine 32: 32–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Conley, D.J., C.L. Schelske, and E.F. Stoermer. 1993. Modification of the biogeochemical cycle of silica with eutrophication. Marine Ecology Progress Series 101: 179–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. De, T.K., S.K. Ghosh, T.K. Jana, and A. Chowdhury. 1991. Phytoplankton bloom in the Hoogly estuary. Indian Journal of marine Science 20: 134–137.Google Scholar
  13. Dey, T.K., S. Ghosh, T.K., Jana, B.N. Singh, and A. Choudhury. 1987. The physico-chemical characteristics and primary productivity in waters around Lower Long Sands, Hooghly estuary, Sundarbans, India. Proc. of the national symposium on Marine Resources, Techniques, Evaluation and management held at Andhra University Geology Dept. from 14th to 16th May 1987, pp 19-21.Google Scholar
  14. Ganguly, D., M. Dey, S.K. Mandal, T.K. De, and T.K. Jana. 2008. Energy dynamics and its implication to biosphere–atmosphere exchange of CO2, H2O and CH4 in a tropical mangrove forest canopy. Atmospheric Environment 42: 4172–4184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. GEMS Global Environment Monitoring System, GEMS database, 2002. http://www.gemswater.org.
  16. Grasshoff, K. 1983. Determination of oxygen. In Methods of seawater analysis, 2nd ed, ed. K. Grasshoff, M. Ehrhardt, and K. Krembing, 61–72. Germany: Verlag Chemic, Germany.Google Scholar
  17. Grasshoff, K., M. Ehrhardt, and K. Krembing. 1983. Methods of seawater analysis, 2nd ed. Germany: Verlag Chemic.Google Scholar
  18. Keller, P.E., S.A. Paulson, and L.J. Paulson. 1980. Methods for biological, chemical and physical analysis in reservoirs. Tech Rep. 5, Lake Mead Limnological Res. Centre, Univ. Nevada.Google Scholar
  19. Lalli, C.M. and T.R. Parsons. 1993. Biological Oceanography: An Introduction, p 63. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  20. Longhurst, A. 1998. Ecological geography of the sea, p 398. San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  21. Meybeek, M. 1982. Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous transport by world rivers. American Journal Science 282: 401–405.Google Scholar
  22. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystem and human well-being; synthesis. Washington: Island Press.Google Scholar
  23. Mukhopadhyay, S.K., H. Biswas, T.K. De, and T.K. Jana. 2006. Fluxes of nutrients from the tropical River Hoogly at the land–ocean boundary of Sundarban, NE coast of Bay of Bengal, India. Journal of Marine System 62: 9–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nixon, S.W. and M.G. Pilson. 1983. Nitrogen in estuarine and coastal marine ecosystems. In Nitrogen in the marine environment, ed. E.J. Carpenter and D.G. Capone, 565–648. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  25. Pahlow, M. and U. Riebesell. 2001. Temporal trends in deep ocean Redfield ratios. Science 287: 831–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rahm, L., D. Conley, P. Sanden, F. Wulff, and P. Stalnacke. 1996. Time series analysis of nutrient inputs to the Baltic Sea and changing DSi:DIN ratios. Marine Ecology Progress Series 130: 221–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Reynolds, C.S. 1984. Phytoplankton periodicity: The interactions of form, function and environmental variability. Freshwater Biology 14: 111–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Reynolds, C.S. 1997. Vegetation processes in the pelagic: A model for ecosystem theory, pp 371. Oldendorf/Luha: Ecology Institute.Google Scholar
  29. Richardson, K. 1997. Harmful or exceptional phytoplankton blooms in the marine ecosystem. Advances in Marine Biology 31: 301–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sarmiento, J.L., T.M.C. Hughas, R.J. Stoutter, and S. Manabe. 1998. Simulated response of the ocean carbon cycle to anthropogenic carbon warming. Nature 393: 245–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Seitzinger, S.P., J.A. Harrison, E. Dumont, A.H.W. Bensen, and A.F. Bouwman. 2005. Sources and delivery of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous to the coastal zone: An overview of global nutrient export from watersheds (NEWS) models and their application. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 19: GB4S01. doi:10.1029/2005GB002606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stolte, W., T. Mccollin, A. Noordeloos, and R. Riegman. 1994. Effect of nitrogen-source on the size distribution within marine-phytoplankton population. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 184: 83–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Strickland, J.D.H. and T.R. Parsons. 1972. A practical handbook of seawater analysis, 2nd ed. Canada: Fish. Res. Board.Google Scholar
  34. Valdes-Weaver, L.M., M.F. Piehler, J.L. Pinckney, K.E. Howe, K. Rossignol, and H.W. Paerl. 2006. Long-term temporal and spatial trends in phytoplankton biomass and class-level taxonomic composition in the hydrologically variable Neuse-Pamlico estuarine continuum, North Carolina U. S. A. Limnology and Oceanography 51(3): 1410–1420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Walsh, J.J. 1991. Importance of the continental margins in the marine biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen. Nature 350: 53–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Walsh, J.J., G.T. Rowe, R.E. Iverson, and C.P. Mcroy. 1981. Biological export of shelf carbon is a sink of the global CO2 cycle. Nature 291: 196–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haimanti Biswas
    • 1
  • Mitali Dey
    • 1
  • Dipnarayan Ganguly
    • 1
  • Tarun K. De
    • 1
  • Sandip Ghosh
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tapan K. Jana
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Marine ScienceCalcutta UniversityKolkataIndia
  2. 2.B.P.Poddar Institute of Management and TechnologyKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations