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Impact of 2,4-D and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber age on anthocyanin content of skin and phellem anatomy of Red Norland

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Abstract

Attractive appearance is highly desirable for fresh market red-skinned potatoes. Red potatoes derive their skin color from anthocyanins. Some growers attempt to enhance red potato skin color by treating vines with the synthetic auxin 2,4-D. In this study, 2,4-D was applied twice at early bloom stage to ‘Red Norland’ potatoes and tubers were harvested weekly until plants senesced. 2,4-D rapidly increased anthocyanin quantity and altered anthocyanin composition. Average tuber mass at the final harvest was less for the 2,4-D-treatment than untreated controls. Elevated anthocyanin content resulting from 2,4-D persisted through 3 months storage. 2,4-D-treated potatoes did not differ from untreated controls in the number and depth of red pigmented cells in the phellem. Thus, changes in periderm cell division and expansion may not contribute to the 2,4-D response of ‘Red Norland’. Instead, the data suggest that 2,4-D application initiated a rapid change in anthocyanin accumulation that persisted into storage.

Resumen

La apariencia atractiva es altamente deseable para el mercado fresco de papa roja. Las papas rojas derivan el color de su piel de las antocianinas. Algunos productores intentan aumentar el color rojo de la piel de la papa mediante el tratamiento del follaje con la auxina sintética 2,4-D. En este estudio, el 2,4-D se aplicó dos veces en un estado temprano de floración a la variedad “Red Norland”, y se cosecharon los tubérculos semanalmente hasta la senescencia de las plantas. El 2,4-D incrementó rápidamente la cantidad de antocianina y alteró su composición. El promedio de la masa del tubérculo en la cosecha final fue menor para el tratamiento con 2,4-D que en los testigos sin tratar. El elevado contenido de antocianina que resultó del 2,4-D persistió a lo largo de tres meses de almacenamiento. Las papas tratadas con 2,4-D no tuvieron diferencias con los testigos sin tratar en el número y profundidad de las células pigmentadas de rojo en el felema. De aquí que los cambios en la división y expansión celular y en peridermo puede que no contribuyan a la respuesta del 2,4-D de “Red Norland”. En cambio, los datos sugieren que la aplicación del 2,4-D iniciaron un cambio rápido en la acumulación de antocianinas que persistió en el almacén.

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank Steve Diercks and Andy Diercks of Coloma Farms for their participation in this project. Dan Heider, University of Wisconsin-Department of Horticulture, made the 2,4-D applications and his assistance is gratefully acknowledged. The authors thank Peter Crump, University of Wisconsin-Madison Statistical Consultant, for experimental design assistance and Cameron O. Scarlett, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Pharmacy, for assistance with mass spectrometry. The assistance with HPLC method development provided by Alex Knopf and Dakota Schaus is sincerely appreciated. This work was funded in part by the Wisconsin Potato and Vegetable Growers Association.

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Correspondence to Paul C. Bethke.

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Busse, J.S., Bethke, P.C. Impact of 2,4-D and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber age on anthocyanin content of skin and phellem anatomy of Red Norland. Am. J. Potato Res. 97, 102–110 (2020) doi:10.1007/s12230-019-09760-5

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Keywords

  • Red potato quality
  • Fresh market potato
  • Periderm
  • Synthetic auxin
  • Peonidin
  • Pelargonidin