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American Journal of Potato Research

, Volume 94, Issue 4, pp 390–402 | Cite as

Nitrogen Fertilizer Management Practices to Reduce N2O Emissions from Irrigated Processing Potato in Manitoba

  • Xiaopeng Gao
  • Sally Parsonage
  • Mario TenutaEmail author
  • Kevin Baron
  • Krista Hanis-Gervais
  • Alison Nelson
  • Dale Tomasiewicz
  • Ramona Mohr
Article

Abstract

Nitrogen fertilizer practices affect nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural soils. The “4R” nutrient stewardship framework of using N fertilizer at the right rate, right source, right placement and right time can reduce N2O emissions while maintaining or improving yield of field crops, but understanding of how the various factors affect N2O emissions from irrigated processing potato is lacking. We examined the effects of selected 4R practices on emissions, using results from two irrigated processing potato studies each conducted in 2011 and 2012 in Manitoba, Canada. Experiment 1 examined combinations of source (urea, ESN), placement (pre-plant incorporation [PPI], banding), and rate (100 and 200 kg N ha-1) on a clay loam soil. Experiment 2 examined timing and source treatment combinations (urea PPI, ESN PPI, urea split, urea split/fertigation) on a loamy fine sandy soil. For Experiment 1, use of ESN at 200 kg ha-1 did not reduce area-, yield- and applied fertilizer N- based N2O emissions compared to urea at 200 kg ha-1, irrespective of placement. Emissions from pre-plant banding ESN at 200 kg ha−1, however, were 32% lower than from PPI ESN. For Experiment 2, compared to single pre-plant urea application, fertigation simulated by in-season application of urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) gave lower area-, yield- and applied fertilizer N- based emissions. Split urea ( \( \raisebox{1ex}{$2$}\!\left/ \!\raisebox{-1ex}{$3$}\right. \) pre-plant, \( \raisebox{1ex}{$1$}\!\left/ \!\raisebox{-1ex}{$3$}\right. \) hilling) also reduced area- and yield- based N2O emissions compared to single pre-plant urea application. Emissions were generally lower at the site with loamy fine sandy soil than the site with clay loam soil. These results demonstrate that combinations of “4R” practices rather than source alone are best to achieve reductions in N2O emissions from irrigated potato production.

Keywords

Banding Polymer coated fertilizer Fertigation Irrigation Nitrogen Nitrous oxide Potato Split Urea 

Abbreviations

DOY

day of year

EF

N2O emission factor

EI

N2O emission intensity

PPI

pre-plant incorporation

∑N2O

growing season area-scaled cumulative emissions

Resumen

Las prácticas de fertilización nitrogenada afectan las emisiones de óxido nitroso N2O de los suelos agrícolas. El marco de referencia administrativo de nutrientes “4R” del uso de fertilizante nitrogenado a nivel, fuente, ubicación y tiempo correctos, puede reducir las emisiones de N2O mientras se mantiene o se mejora el rendimiento de los cultivos en el campo, pero se carece del entendimiento de como varios factores afectan dichas emisiones en papa para proceso bajo riego. Examinamos los efectos de prácticas selectas 4R en emisiones, utilizando los resultados de dos estudios de papa de riego para proceso conducidos en 2011 y 2012 en Manitoba, Canadá. En el experimento 1 se examinaron las combinaciones de fuente (urea, ESN), colocación (incorporación pre-siembra [PPI], en bandas), y cantidad (100 y 200 kg N ha-1), en un suelo franco-arcilloso. En el experimento 2 se examinó la combinación de tratamientos de tiempo y fuente (urea, PPI, ESN PPI, urea fraccionada, urea fraccionada/riego) en un suelo fino franco-arenoso. Para el experimento 1, el uso de ESN a 200 kg ha-1, no redujo el área-rendimiento, ni las emisiones de N2O con base a la aplicación del fertilizante nitrogenado comparado con la urea a 200 kg ha-1 independientemente de la colocación. Las emisiones de ESN pre-siembra en banda a 200 kg ha-1, no obstante, fueron 32% más bajas que las de PPI ESN. Para el experimento 2, en comparación a la aplicación de urea simple en pre-siembra, la fertirrigación simulada por la aplicación durante el ciclo de urea nitrato de amonio (UAN) dio más bajo rendimiento-área y de emisiones basadas en la aplicación de fertilizante nitrogenado. La urea fraccionada ( \( \raisebox{1ex}{$2$}\!\left/ \!\raisebox{-1ex}{$3$}\right. \) pre-siembra, \( \raisebox{1ex}{$1$}\!\left/ \!\raisebox{-1ex}{$3$}\right. \) al aporque), también redujo área-rendimiento con base a las emisiones de N2O en comparación con la aplicación única de urea pre-siembra. Las emisiones fueron generalmente más bajas en el sitio con suelo fino franco-arenoso que en el de suelo franco-arcilloso. Estos resultados demuestran que las combinaciones de las prácticas “4R” en vez de la fuente solamente, son mejores para lograr reducciones en las emisiones de N2O en la producción de papa de riego.

Notes

Acknowledgement

Greenhouse gas emission monitoring in this study was funded by the Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Program (AGGP) of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), a contract to Dr. Tenuta for the project “Determination of Greenhouse Gas Release from an Irrigated Field Research Trial in Manitoba” AAFC file number 3000479448, Agrium Inc., the Canada Research Chair Program in Applied Soil Ecology (Tenuta), and the National Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada (NSERC) Discovery Grant Program (Tenuta). Additionally, we thank Brad Sparling for gas analyses and staff of CMCDC-Carberry for assistance with plot establishment and gas sampling.

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Copyright information

© The Potato Association of America 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Soil ScienceUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and GeographyChinese Academy of SciencesUrumqiChina
  3. 3.Canada-Manitoba Crop Diversification CentreAgriculture and Agri-Food CanadaCarberryCanada
  4. 4.Canada-Saskatchewan Irrigation Diversification CentreAgriculture and Agri-Food CanadaOutlookCanada
  5. 5.Brandon Research and Development CentreAgriculture and Agri-Food CanadaBrandonCanada

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