American Journal of Potato Research

, Volume 94, Issue 2, pp 153–159 | Cite as

Determination of Glycoalkaloids in Potatoes and Potato Products by Microwave Assisted Extraction

  • Narasimharao Kondamudi
  • Jacob K. Smith
  • Owen M. McDougal


Potato glycoalkaloids can reach levels that are harmful to human health. A rapid and reliable microwave assisted extraction method for quantitative analysis of α-solanine and α-chaconine content in raw potato and potato based products is presented. A chemical microwave was used to determine optimal temperature and pressure conditions for the extraction of α-solanine and α-chaconine from Idaho grown tubers and six commercially available mashed potato products. Recovery efficiency of glycoalkaloids was 37% greater by microwave assisted extraction (19.92 mg/kg glycoalkaloid) as compared to conventional solid/liquid methods (12.51 mg/kg glycoalkaloid). Optimal extraction of glycoalkaloids from potato samples dissolved in methanol was achieved using a microwave reactor set to 90 °C for ten minutes. The interior of Idaho grown tubers was determined to contain lower levels of glycoalkaloids (19.92 mg/kg dry weight; 6.5 ± 1.78 mg α-solanine and 13.40 ± 1.65 mg α-chaconine), as compared to commercial potato products (33.86–81.59 mg/kg).


Glycoalkaloids Microwave assisted extraction Idaho grown potato Alpha-solanine Alpha-chaconine 


Los glicoalcaloides de la papa pueden alcanzar niveles dañinos a la salud humana. Aquí se presenta un método rápido y confiable de extracción asistida por microondas para análisis cuantitativo del contenido de α-solanina y α-chaconina en papa cruda y en productos a base de papa. Se usó una microonda química para determinar las condiciones óptimas de temperatura y presión para la extracción de α-solanina y α-chaconina, de tubérculos cultivados en Idaho y de seis productos comerciales disponibles de puré de papa. La eficiencia en la recuperación de los glicoalcaloides fue 37% mayor mediante la extracción asistida por microondas (19.92 mg de alcaloide/kg) en comparación a métodos convencionales de sólido/líquido (12.51 mg alcaloide/kg). La extracción óptima de glicoalcaloides de muestras de papa disueltas en metanol se logró usando un reactor de microondas a 90 °C por diez minutos. Se determinó que el interior de los tubérculos cultivados en Idaho contenían niveles más bajos de glicoalcaloides (19.92 mg/kg de peso seco; 6.5 ± 1.78 mg α-solanina y 13.40 ± 1.65 mg α-chaconina), al compararse con productos comerciales (33.86–81.59 mg/kg).



The authors wish to thank Dr. Jeffri Bohlscheid, Senior Principal Scientist at J. R. Simplot Company for consultation and material support for this project. The chemical microwave was purchased using funds provided by the state of Idaho Technology Incentive Grant program and the separation and analysis of products was conducted using a UPLC-DAD-MS purchased with funds obtained from the Idaho Department of Commerce Global Entrepreneurial Mission grant program. The financial support of Boise State University College of Arts and Sciences and Office of Sponsored Programs made this work possible.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Competing Interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© The Potato Association of America 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Narasimharao Kondamudi
    • 1
  • Jacob K. Smith
    • 1
  • Owen M. McDougal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry & BiochemistryBoise State UniversityBoiseUSA

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