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American Journal of Potato Research

, Volume 90, Issue 3, pp 294–296 | Cite as

First Report of Potato Psyllids, Bactericera cockerelli, Overwintering in the Pacific Northwest

  • Alexzandra F. Murphy
  • Silvia I. RondonEmail author
  • Andrews S. Jensen
Short Communication

Abstract

Potato psyllids became a topic of interest at the end of the 2011 growing season in the Pacific Northwest when they were first documented to transmit ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum,’ the putative pathogen causing zebra chip disease in the region. Zebra Chip is characterized by above and below ground symptoms that cause significant yield loss. For many decades it has been unclear whether the potato psyllid migrates to states in the Pacific Northwest from large, well-documented infestation areas in California or Texas. Thus, we conducted a study in the spring of 2012 in the lower Columbia Basin (north east Oregon and south east Washington state), and in the fall, winter, and spring of 2012 in southwestern Idaho to determine if psyllids could be found overwintering. Potato psyllid was observed in November 2011 in southwestern Idaho and March 2012 in the lower Columbia Basin living on Solanum dulcamara L. (i.e., bittersweet nightshade), a perennial weed of wet habitats and riverbanks. Potato psyllids were collected and brought to the laboratory. Emerging adults from both locations (i.e., Columbia Basin and Idaho) were offered potato plants and they completed a second generation in approximately 15 days under similar environmental conditions. While overwinter survival of the potato psyllid in the Pacific Northwest is concerning for the potato industry, weather trends in the region were mild during the winter of 2012. It is unknown whether a colder or longer winter season would affect the overwintering biology we have observed. Observations through several coming winters are warranted.

Keywords

Insect Integrated pest management Overwintering Potato Potato psyllid Psyllid Solanum 

Resumen

El psílido de la papa se convirtió en tu tema de interés al final de la temporada de campo del 2011 en el Pacífico Nor-Oeste de los Estados Unidos. El psílido de la papa fue encontrado en la región, transmitiendo ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum,’ el agente putativo que causa la enfermedad conocida como Zebra Chip o estriado de las papas. La enfermedad del estriado de las papas causa síntomas en el follaje y en los tubérculos causando grande daño económico. Por muchos años no fue claro si los psílidos migraban de los estados de California o Texas al Pacífico Nor-Oeste de los Estados Unidos. Así, en la primavera del 2012 en el área conocida como “lower Columbia Basin” (nor-este de Oregon y sur-este del estado de Washington) y en el otoño, invierno y primavera del 2012 en el sur-oeste de Idaho, se obervó el psílido de la papa en Solanum dulcamara L. (i.e., nightshade), una mala hierba perenne que se encuentra a las orillas de ríos y fuentes de agua. Insectos colectados fueron traídos al laboratorio y adultos que emergieron de las colonias del “lower Columbia Basin” y Idaho fueron alimentados con plantas de papa completando su ciclo de vida en 15 días . El hallazgo del psílido de la papa en la zona del Pacífico Nor-Oeste de los Estados Unidos es de gran preocupación. Cabe indicar que las temperaturas en la región fueron moderadas y no es claro como estos insectos se comportarían ante temperaturas normales.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors extend sincere thanks to the Oregon and Washington Potato Commissions for their financial support. This research was also partially funded by a SCRI Zebra Chip mini grant (http://zebrachipscri.tamu.edu/).

References

  1. AgWeatherNet. 2012. AgWeatherNet Winter 2011/2012 Weather Review for Washington. http://weather.wsu.edu/awn.php?page=AWN_Winter_2011_Weather_Review&menu_item=news.
  2. Crosslin, J.M., P. Hamm, J.E. Eggers, S.I. Rondon, V.G. Sengoda, and J.E. Munyaneza. 2012. First report of zebra chip disease and “Candidatus Liberibacter solanarum” on potatoes in Oregon and Washington State. Plant Disease 96(3): 452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Munyaneza, J.E., J.M. Crosslin, and J.L. Buchman. 2009. Seasonal occurrence and abundance of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, in south central Washington. American Journal of Potato Research 86: 513–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Potato Association of America 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexzandra F. Murphy
    • 2
  • Silvia I. Rondon
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Andrews S. Jensen
    • 3
  1. 1.Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension CenterOregon State UniversityHermistonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Crop and Soil ScienceOregon State UniversityHermistonUSA
  3. 3.Potato Commissions of Washington, Idaho, & OregonEagleUSA

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