Advertisement

American Journal of Potato Research

, Volume 88, Issue 6, pp 470–478 | Cite as

Potato Seed Piece Size, Spacing, and Seeding Rate Effects on Yield, Quality and Economic Return

  • William H. BohlEmail author
  • Jeffrey C. Stark
  • Christopher S. McIntosh
Article

Abstract

It has been observed that potato producers often focus more on the quantity of potato seed pieces being planted per unit area than on seed piece size and placement within the row. This study compared the effects of seed quantity per unit area (Mg ha−1) or seed piece size and in-row spacing on potato yield and quality. Hand-cut certified seed of three potato cultivars (Alturas, Russet Norkotah, Ranger Russet) of three size classes (42, 64 or 85 g) were planted at in-row seed piece spacings of 20, 30 or 40 cm. Three of the treatments (42-g seed pieces planted at 20 cm, 64-g seed pieces planted at 30 cm, and 85-g seed pieces planted at 40 cm) resulted in equal weights of seed planted (2.28 Mg ha−1). Increasing seed piece size from 42 to 85 g resulted in higher total yield regardless of in-row spacing. U.S. No. 1 yield was increased only at the 40-cm in-row spacing when 42- and 85-g seed pieces were planted. Increasing seed piece spacing from 20 to 40 cm resulted in lower total and U.S. No. 1 yields at all three seed piece size treatments. However, equal seeding rates of 2.28 Mg ha−1 resulted in equal total and U.S. No. 1 yields. Altering seed piece size or in-row spacing had little effect on tuber yields in the 285–397-g size category. A fresh-pack economic gross returns analysis of Russet Norkotah based on tuber size distribution less seed costs resulted in higher gross returns per ha only for 85-g seed pieces planted at 40 cm compared with planting 42- or 64-g seed pieces at a the 40 cm. At an equal seeding rate of 2.28 Mg ha−1, paired t-tests indicated there were no differences in gross returns per ha. However, the effects of seed piece size and spacing on economic return will depend on cost of seed and the selling price of the harvested potatoes.

Keywords

Planting rate Plant population In-row spacing Idaho 

Resumen

Se ha observado que los productores de papa a menudo se enfocan más en la cantidad de piezas de semilla que están siendo plantadas por unidad de área que en el tamaño de la pieza y su colocación en el surco. Este estudio comparó los efectos de la cantidad de semilla por unidad de área (Mg ha−1) o el tamaño de la pieza de semilla y el espaciamiento en el surco, sobre el rendimiento y la calidad de la papa. Se plantaron piezas cortadas a mano de semilla certificada de tres variedades (Alturas, Russet Norkotah, Ranger Russet), de tres tamaños (42, 64, 85 g), en espaciamientos en el surco de 20, 30, o 40 cm entre unidades. Tres de los tratamientos (piezas de semilla de 42 g plantadas a 20 cm, piezas de 64 g a 30 cm, y piezas de 85 g a 40 cm), dieron como resultado pesos iguales de semilla plantada (2.28 Mg ha−1). El incremento en el tamaño de la pieza de 42 a 85 g resultó en rendimiento total más alto independientemente del espaciamiento dentro del surco. Se aumentó el rendimiento de U.S. No. 1 solo con el espaciamiento a 40 cm cuando se plantaron piezas de semilla de 42 y 85 g. El aumento en el espaciamiento de 20 a 40 cm resultó en más bajo rendimiento total y de U.S. No. 1 para los tratamientos de los tres tamaños de piezas de semilla. No obstante, niveles de plantación iguales de 2.28 Mg ha−1 resultaron en rendimientos similares totales y de U.S. No. 1. La alteración en el tamaño de la pieza o el espaciamiento dentro del surco tuvieron poco efecto en rendimiento de tubérculo con pesos de 285–397 g . Un análisis de recuperación económica total en fresco de Russet Norkotah con base en la distribución de tamaño de tubérculo menos los costos de la semilla, resultaron en ingresos totales más altos por ha solo para las piezas de 85 g plantadas a 40 cm, comparados con la siembra de piezas de 42 o 64 g a 40 cm. A un nivel igual de semilla de 2.28 Mg ha-1, las pruebas de t por pares indicaron que no hubo diferencias en recuperaciones totales por ha. No obstante, los efectos del tamaño de la pieza de semilla y el espaciamiento respecto a la recuperación económica, dependerán de los costos de semilla y de los precios de venta de las papas cosechadas.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge and thank Peggy Bain and Tom Salaiz for their assistance with field work, data collection and analysis. This study was conducted by scientists and faculty of the Idaho Center for Potato Research and Education. Funds in partial support of this study were provided by the Idaho Potato Commission and are gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. Allen, E.J. 1978. Plant density. In The potato crop, ed. P.M. Harris, pp. 278–326. Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, E.J., and S.A. O’Brien. 1987. An analysis of the effects of seed weight, seed rate and date of harvest on the yield and economic value of seed-potato crops. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 108: 165–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arsenault, W.J., D.A. LeBlanc, G.C.C. Tai, and P. Boswell. 2001. Effects of nitrogen application and seed piece spacing on yield and tuber size distribution in eight potato cultivars. American Journal of Potato Research 78: 301–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barry, P., T.S. Storey, and T. Quinlivan. 1981. Effect of population and seed size on the yield of two maincrop potato cultivars. Irish journal of agricultural research 20: 71–79.Google Scholar
  5. Bishop, J.C., and D.N. Wright. 1959. The effect of size and spacing of seed pieces on the yield and grade of White Rose potatoes in Kern County, California. American Potato Journal 36: 235–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Creamer, N.G., C.R. Crozier, and M.A. Cubeta. 1999. Influence of seedpiece spacing and population on yield, internal quality, and economic performance of Atlantic, Superior, and Snowden potato varieties in eastern North Carolina. American Journal of Potato Research 76: 257–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Houghland, G.V.C., and R.V. Akeley. 1959. Effects of seed spacing and fertilizer rate on field performance of potato varieties and on financial returns. American Potato Journal 36: 227–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Iritani, W.M., R. Thornton, L. Weller, and G. O’Leary. 1972. Relationship of seed size, spacing, stem numbers to yield of Russet Burbank potatoes. American Potato Journal 49: 463–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Iritani, W.M., L.D. Weller, and N.R. Knowles. 1983. Relationships between stem number, tuber set and yield of Russet Burbank Potatoes. American Potato Journal 60: 423–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Johansen, R.H., B. Farnsworth, D.C. Nelson, G.A. Secor, N. Gudmestad, and E.H. Orr. 1988. Russet Norkotah: A new russet-skinned potato cultivar with wide adaptation. American Potato Journal 65: 597–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Knowles, R.N., and L.O. Knowles. 2006. Manipulating stem numbers, tuber set, and yield relationships for northern- and southern-grown potato seed lots. Crop Science 46: 284–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Love, S.L., and A. Thompson-Johns. 1999. Seed piece spacing influences yield, tuber size distribution, stem and tuber density, and net returns of three processing potato cultivars. HortScience 34(4): 629–633.Google Scholar
  13. Nelson, D.D., and M.C. Thoreson. 1982. Effect of seed tuber and seed piece size on growth and incidence of hollow heart in Norgold Russet potatoes. American Potato Journal 59: 367–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Novy, R.G., D.L. Corsini, S.L. Love, J.J. Pavek, A.R. Mosley, S.R. James, D.C. Hane, C.C. Shock, K.A. Rykbost, C.R. Brown, and R.E. Thornton. 2003. Alturas: A multi-purpose, russet potato cultivar with high yield and tuber specific gravity. American Journal of Potato Research 80: 295–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Patterson, P.E. 2007. Crop costs and returns estimates—Eastern Idaho. University of Idaho. http://www.ag.uidaho.edu/aers/crop_EB_07_e.htm. Accessed March 31, 2009.
  16. Pavek, J.J., D.L. Corsini, S.L. Love, D.C. Hane, D.G. Holm, W.M. Iritani, S.R. James, M.W. Martin, A.R. Mosley, J.C. Ojala, C.E. Stanger, and R.E. Thornton. 1992. Ranger Russet: A long russet potato variety for processing and fresh market with improved quality, disease resistance, and yield. American Potato Journal 69: 483–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rex, B.L. 1990. Effect of seed piece population on the yield and processing quality of Russet Burbank potatoes. American Potato Journal 67: 473–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rykbost, K.A., and K.A. Locke. 1999. Effect of seed piece size on performance of three potato varieties in the Klamath Basis of Oregon. American Journal of Potato Research 75: 75–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Schotzko, R.T., W.M. Iritani, and R.E. Thornton. 1984. The economics of Russet Burbank seed size and spacing. American Potato Journal 61: 57–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Smith, O., R.F. Hommel, and W.C. Kelly. 1943. Relation of rate and placement of fertilizer, variety, seed piece spacing, and size of seed piece to yields of potatoes. American Potato Journal 20: 267–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. SAS (Statistical Analysis System). 1990. SAS user’s guide. Version 6.0. Gary: Statistical Analysis Systems Institute.Google Scholar
  22. Stark, J.C., and D.T. Westerman. 2003. Nutrient management. In Potato production systems, ed. J.C. Stark and S.L. Love, 115–135. Moscow: University of Idaho.Google Scholar
  23. Tarkalson, D.D., B.A. King, D.L. Bjorneberg, and J.P. Taberna Jr. 2011. Evaluation of in-row plant spacing and planting configuration for three irrigated potato cultivars. American Journal of Potato Research 88: 207–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Timm, H., J.C. Bishop, and V.H. Schweers. 1963. Growth, yield, and quality of White Rose potatoes as affected by plant population and levels of nitrogen. American Potato Journal 40: 182–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wurr, D.C. 1974. Some effects of seed size and spacing on the yield and grading of two maincrop potato varieties. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 82: 37–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Potato Association of America 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • William H. Bohl
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jeffrey C. Stark
    • 2
  • Christopher S. McIntosh
    • 3
  1. 1.University of IdahoBlackfootUSA
  2. 2.University of Idaho, Plant, Soil and Entomological SciencesIdaho FallsUSA
  3. 3.University of Idaho, Agricultural Economics and Rural SociologyMoscowUSA

Personalised recommendations