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American Journal of Potato Research

, Volume 86, Issue 6, pp 481–489 | Cite as

Impact of Zebra Chip Disease on the Mineral Content of Potato Tubers

  • Godfrey P. Miles
  • Jeremy L. Buchman
  • Joseph E. Munyaneza
Article

Abstract

Zebra chip (ZC) is an emerging and damaging disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) that has been documented in potato fields throughout the southwestern United States, Mexico, Central America, and most recently New Zealand. The bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter” has been putatively identified as the causal agent of this disease and the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), as the insect vector. Tuber symptoms of ZC-infected plants include collapsed stolons, enlarged lenticels, vascular tissue browning, medullary ray discoloration, and necrotic flecking. ZC tuber symptoms are similar to those of potato diseases which exhibit perturbations in tuber mineral composition resulting in internal necrotic disorders. To determine the effect of ZC disease on the mineral content of potato tubers, concentrations of P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Al, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B were analyzed in ‘Atlantic’ potatoes from ZC-infected and free plants, for both tuber flesh and peel tissues. The potatoes were grown at Weslaco, TX and Wapato, WA, two different and distant geographical locations under controlled cage conditions. Results showed that flesh tissue from ZC-infected tubers had significantly higher concentrations of P, K, and Ca at both locations, whereas, ZC-infected tuber flesh from Weslaco had higher concentrations of Mg, Cu, Zn, and B, while concentrations of Fe and Al were higher in ZC-infected tuber flesh from Wapato. Peel tissue from ZC-infected tubers were found to have a significantly higher level of Zn at both locations, whereas the levels of P and Na were found to significantly higher in peel tissue from Wapato and Weslaco, respectively. Finally, Mg was found to be significantly higher in ZC-free tubers from both locations and levels of Cu and B were significantly higher in ZC-free peel tissue from Wapato.

Keywords

Bactericera cockerelli Potato psyllid Zebra chip disease Candidatus Liberibacter Mineral content Solanum tuberosum Cultivar Atlantic 

Resumen

Zebra chip (ZC) es una enfermedad emergente y dañina de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) que ha sido documentada en campos de papa en todo el sureste de los Estados Unidos, México, Centro América, y recientemente en Nueva Zelandia. Se ha identificado presuntamente a la bacteria “Candidatus liberibacter” como el agente causal de esta enfermedad, y al psílido de la papa Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) como el insecto vector. Los síntomas del tubérculo de plantas infectadas con ZC incluyen el colapso de los estolones, lenticelas alargadas, oscurecimiento del tejido vascular, coloración radial medular y manchas necróticas. Los síntomas de ZC en tubérculo son similares a los de enfermedades de papa que muestran alteraciones en la composición mineral del tubérculo que resulta en desordenes internos necróticos. A fin de determinar el efecto de la enfermedad ZC en el contenido mineral de tubérculos de papa, se analizaron las concentraciones de P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Al, Mn, Cu, Zn, y B, en plantas infectadas con ZC y sanas de la variedad Atlantic de papa, tanto de la pulpa como de la cutícula. Las papas se cultivaron en Weslaco, TX y Wapato, WA, dos ubicaciones geográficas diferentes y distantes, bajo condiciones controladas de confinamiento. Los resultados mostraron que el tejido de la pulpa de tubérculos infectados con ZC tenían significativamente mayores concentraciones de P, K, y Ca en ambas localidades, mientras que la pulpa de tubérculos infectados con ZC de Weslaco tenían mayores concentraciones de Mg, Cu, Zn, y B, y las concentraciones de Fe y Al fueron mas altas en pulpa de tubérculos infectados con ZC de Wapato. Se encontró que el tejido de la cutícula de tubérculos infectados con ZC tenía un nivel significativamente más alto de Zn en ambas localidades, mientras que P y Na fue mayor con significancia en tejido cuticular de Wapato y Weslaco, respectivamente. Finalmente, se encontró que el Mg fue significativamente mayor en tubérculos libres de ZC de ambas localidades, y los niveles de Cu y B fueron significativamente más altos en tejido cuticular libre de ZC de Wapato.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Jeff Upton, Millie Heidt, Dan Hallauer, Blaine Heilman, and Andy Cruz for their invaluable technical assistance. We are also grateful to Drs. Dave Horton, Steve Garczynski, and Roy Navarre for their critical reading of this manuscript. Financial support for this work was partially provided by Frito Lay, Inc., Texas Department of Agriculture, and the USDA-ARS State Cooperative Potato Research Program.

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Copyright information

© Potato Association of America 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Godfrey P. Miles
    • 1
  • Jeremy L. Buchman
    • 1
  • Joseph E. Munyaneza
    • 1
  1. 1.USDA-ARS, Yakima Agricultural Research LaboratoryWapatoWAUSA

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