Advertisement

The Botanical Review

, Volume 78, Issue 4, pp 335–344 | Cite as

A New Zamia Species from the Panama Canal Area

  • Alberto Sidney Taylor BlakeEmail author
  • Gregory Holzman
Article

Abstract

There are four terrestrial, above-ground stemmed Zamia taxa in Panama, the species delimitations of which have been a matter of controversy or misplacement at one time or the other (Schutzman et. al., 1998; Stevenson, 1993; Taylor, 1999a, b, 2002). All are allopatrically distributed. Two are in western Panama in Chiriquí province. One of these, Z. pseudomonticola, is found in the northwest of the province at altitudes above 1000 m, while the other, Z. fairchildiana, is found in a relatively small patch of forest in southwestern Chiriquí province. The other two taxa are found around the Canal area or farther east. The species described in this paper is found near the Canal area, and the last of the group, Z. elegantissima, occurs north of the Canal area in the province of Colon and also some distance to the east, including part of the Dule or Kuna aboriginal homeland known as Kuna Yala. After 16 years of research on the new taxon, we have decided to describe it as a new species, pointing out its similarity to Z. elegantissima and its distinctness from Z. pseudomonticola and Z . fairchildiana. The two western species are more alike in structure compared with the eastern species, and the latter are more alike between themselves compared to the western taxa. Even so, there are differences in vegetative and reproductive structures to clearly separate each species. There are even differences in the pollinators, these being, in all cases found, species of the weevil genus Rhopalotria and the snubbed-nosed beetle Pharaxonotha.

Keywords

Zamia Allopatry Pollen cones Leaflets Pollinators Hervibory Emergent leaves 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the ongoing support of the University of Panama (President, Vice-President for Research and Graduate Studies, and various deans of the Faculty of Natural and Exact Sciences and Technology) of the senior author as full-time research faculty and also for infrastructure where possible (e.g. space for a cycad garden of over 3000 plants, including germlings, young plants and mature coning and non-coning individuals). We are also grateful for the partial support of the National Environmental Authority of Panama (ANAM) for granting us permission to carry out research on Isthmian cycads in the national park where the populations of Z. stevensonii are found. We are also grateful for the most helpful reviews and suggestions of Dr. Dennis William Stevenson and Jody Haynes to better address the objectives of this work. Our thanks also go to Mr. Alberto Prado, graduate student at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama, who went along with the senior author to look for and retrieve specimens of both the holotype and other individuals in the same population for this study. As usual, thanks go to Isabel Debora Herrera Antaneda, wife of the principal author and who has always been an advisor and supportive hand for his research.

Literature Cited

  1. IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. 2010. Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 8.1. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee in March 2010.Google Scholar
  2. Schutzman, B., A. P. Vovides & R. S. Adams. 1998. A new Zamia (Zamiaceae, Cycadales) from Central Panama. Phytologia 85(3): 137–145.Google Scholar
  3. Stevenson, D. W. 1993. The Zamiaceae in Panama with comments on phytogeography and species relationships. Brittonia 45(1): 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. ——— 2001. Cycadales. Pp. 1–92, In: Bernal, R. & Forero, E., (Eds.), Flora de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, ISSN 0120-6 4351, Bogotá, ColombiaGoogle Scholar
  5. ——— 2004. Zamiaceae of Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. Pp 173–194. In: T. Walters & R. Osborne (eds). Cycad classification: Concepts and recommendations. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Taylor, A.S. 1999a. Natural reproductive population structure and pollination in Panamanian Zamia. Abstract, XVI International Botanical Congress, St. Louis, MO, USAGoogle Scholar
  7. ——— 1999b. Insect herbivore relationship in natural reproductive Zamia populations in Panama. Paper presented at the Fifth International Conference on Cycad Biology, Miami, Florida, August 7–10.Google Scholar
  8. ——— 2002. Irrefutable proof of insect pollination in Zamia elegantissima Schutzman, Vovides & Adams, In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Tropical Ecosystems Tropical Forests: Past, Present & Future (Association for Tropical Biology Annual Meeting & Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute), Panamá, Panamá, July 30–August 2, 2002.Google Scholar
  9. ———, J. L. Haynes, D. W. Stevenson, G. Holzman & J. Mendieta. 2012. Biogeographic insights in Central American cycad biology. Pp 73–98. In: L. Stevens (ed). Global advances in biogeography. Tech Publishing, Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Botánica, Universidad de Panamá, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Exactas y TecnologíaPanamáPanamá
  2. 2.Pacific Cycad NurseryKekahaUSA

Personalised recommendations